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Terraforming Mars: What it takes

January 21, 2009 on 1:01 pm | In Solar System |

Ahhh, Mars. The bright, red dot in the sky. The one planet, other than Earth, that is the most likely candidate for life in our Solar System.

But we couldn’t live on it now, at least, not yet. Reader kampfgestfj writes in to ask about the prospects of terraforming Mars, to make it habitable by humans. Right now, we could reasonably go there with spacesuits, and bring our own supplies, food, water, air, etc., just like we do on the international space station (artist’s impression shown below):

But what if we wanted to make Mars like a second Earth? What if we wanted to breathe the air, grow plants and flowers, raise animals, and perhaps even have rivers and oceans? What if we wanted to turn Mars from this:

Into a place like this:

Or, in other words, how do we transform Mars into a more Earth-like planet? Ideally, once we did that, it would be suitable for us to live there. Amazingly, there are only three things we’d need to do to Mars to make it ready to populate, and they’re all related to one another.

1.) Thicken Mars’ atmosphere, and make it more like Earth’s. Earth’s atmosphere is about 78% Nitrogen and 21% Oxygen, and is about 140 times thicker than Mars’ atmosphere. Since Mars is so much smaller than Earth (about 53% of the Earth’s radius), all we’d have to do is bring about 20% of the Earth’s atmosphere over to Mars. If we did that, not only would Earth be, relatively unaffected, but the Martian atmosphere, although it would be thin (since the force of gravity on Mars is only about 40% of what it is on Earth), would be breathable, and about the equivalent consistency of breathing the air in Santa Fe, NM. So that’s nice; breathing is good. What else?

2.) Mars needs to be heated up, by a lot, to support Earth-like life. Mars is cold. Mars is damned cold. At night, in the winter, temperatures on Mars get down to about -160 degrees! (If you ask, “Celcius or Fahrenheit?”, the answer is first one, then the other.) But there’s an easy fix for this: add greenhouse gases. This has the effect of letting sunlight in, but preventing the heat from escaping. In order to keep Mars at about the same temperature as Earth, all we’d have to do is add enough Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Water Vapor to Mars’ atmosphere. Want to know something neat? If we’re going to move 20% of our atmosphere over there, we may want to move 50% of our greenhouse gases with it, solving some of our environmental problems in the process.

These greenhouse gases would keep temperatures stable on Mars and would warm the planet enough to melt the icecaps, covering Mars with oceans. All we’d have to do then is bring some lifeforms over and, very quickly, they’d multiply and cover the Martian planet in life. As we see on Earth, if you give life a suitable environment and the seeds for growth/regrowth, it fills it up very quickly. Look at this clear-cut forest and the regrowth there after only 10 years:

So the prospects for life on a planet with an Earth-like atmosphere, temperature ranges, and oceans are excellent. With oceans and an atmosphere, Mars wouldn’t be a red planet any longer. It would turn blue like Earth! This would also be good for when the Sun heated up in several hundred million years, since Mars will still be habitable when the oceans on Earth boil. But there’s one problem Mars has that Earth doesn’t, that could cause Mars to lose its atmosphere very quickly and go back to being the desert wasteland that it is right now: Mars doesn’t have a magnetic field to protect it from the Solar Wind. The Earth’s magnetic field, sustained in our molten core, protects us from the Solar Wind:

But on geologically dead Mars, where the core has cooled and solidified, there is no magnetic field there. This means that it has no defense against the Solar Wind, which will, relatively quickly, simply blow the atmosphere off of the planet:

So what’s the fix?

3.) Mars needs to be given a magnetic field to shield it from the Solar Wind. This can be accomplished by either permanently magnetizing Mars, the same way you’d magnetize a block of iron to make a magnet, or by re-heating the core of Mars sufficiently to make the center of the planet molten. In either case, this allows Mars to have its own magnetic field, shielding it from the Solar Wind (the same way Earth gets shielded by our magnetic field) and allowing it to keep its atmosphere, oceans, and any life we’ve placed there.

But this doesn’t tell us how to accomplish these three things. The third one seems to me to be especially difficult, since it would take a tremendous amount of energy to do. Still, if you wanted to terraform Mars, simply these three steps would give you a habitable* planet!

* — Seeds of life not included. Bring your own.


155 Comments »

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  1. I was happy until reading about the lack of a magnetic field :(

    How do you heat up the core of a planet or permanently magnetize it? Seems like an awful lot of energy would be needed for that

    Brilliant idea to send some of our green house atmosphere over to mars - a giant garbage pit haha - I wonder how cost effective it would be to start doing that?

    Comment by Kampfgestfj — January 21, 2009 #

  2. I highly recommend the novel trilogy “Red Mars”, “Green Mars”, and “Blue Mars” by Kim Stanley Robinson. They’re wonderful pieces of fiction and are for the most part very scientifically accurate. To thicken the Mars atmosphere in the books, they rely upon plants to release the gases. In Star Trek, Mars’ atmosphere was thickened by slamming comets into the planet.

    Comment by Brian — January 21, 2009 #

  3. Hmm.. Sounds interesting.. So how tremendous is a tremendous amount of energy? It seems that we are already lacking of energy..

    Comment by Sophos — January 22, 2009 #

  4. Heating up the core of a planet would take an awful lot of energy; more than we know how to create. If we want to make an estimate, we’d be talking about raising 10^20 kg of rock/metal by a minimum of about 2,000 degrees Celsius. The specific heat of rock is about 0.2 calories/gram/degree Celsius. This means it will take about 4 x 10^25 calories, or about 1.6 x 10^26 Joules of energy. This means we would need about one million tonnes of antimatter to have that sort of energy.

    Like I said — a lot! It’s thought that Mars lost most of its heat through that giant volcano (Olympus Mons) over a timespan of about 1-2 billion years.

    Brian, although these are nice ideas, they aren’t feasible. You’re talking about adding 10^15 tonnes of gas to Mars. Plants don’t add gas, they breathe in just as much as they breathe out, and the mass of a typical large comet is only about 10^11 tonnes. So these things are hard to do — collide 10,000 large comets with Mars and have all of the comets become gas? They’re neat ideas, but like I said, practicality is something that needs to be considered and we don’t know how to deal with.

    Comment by ethan — January 22, 2009 #

  5. Is there another way to stop solar flares without a magnetic shield or a ridiculously big physical shield (lol) - solar sails that eject out of satellites?

    It looks like pocket colonies would do best and terraforming is out of our league.

    Comment by Kampfgestfj — January 22, 2009 #

  6. But why would we want to? I think it’s more interesting as a scientific playground. No need to go messing up other planets and moons as long as we can’t take care of this one.

    Hmmm. I guess it might be convenient to have a quarter of Humanity elsewhere when the asteroid hits, but meh.

    Comment by Sili — January 22, 2009 #

  7. What about the surface composition of Mars? Is it a suitable mix to (eventually) sustain life as we know it?

    Comment by paulo — January 22, 2009 #

  8. I tend to agree with Sili that we shouldn’t go around messing up other planets. Then again, if humanity is to survive as a species, we have to find another home somewhere. My take on it is if we can prove without a doubt that a given planet (such as Mars) has no life on it whatsoever, then terraforming for human habitation would be acceptable. For the case of Mars, proving it has no life today might be possible, but proving it never had life will be extremely difficult. If we greatly alter the planet, it might destroy whatever record of past life might exist there. Thus, I would hesitate a great deal when considering terraforming alternatives for Mars.

    As for the magnetic field idea, I can’t imagine how we could magnetize the planet or melt the core to induce a geodynamo. I suppose if we could drill radioactive heat sources and/or nuclear bombs to the core, we could impart a lot of energy there, but it would probably not be nearly enough as would be required. We don’t even understand the Earth’s magnetic field generation well enough, let alone that of another planet. I think a better way to mitigate the threat of solar wind would be radiation shielding in buildings/clothing and perhaps genetic modification of plants/animals to build resistance to it.

    Comment by Brian — January 23, 2009 #

  9. The soil on Mars is close enough to the soil on Earth, as far as we know, that it should be able to grow things just fine. I think that when we get the technology to colonize other worlds easily, we’ll do it. The ethical concerns that Brian has are ones I do not share, and so it will be up to people like him to convince people like me that Mars deserves to remain its own planet, free from our influences.

    The reason the magnetic field is so important, and the reason the solar wind needs to be stopped, is that if left unattended, it will blow the atmosphere off of the planet and into space. It’s thought that is how Mars’ atmosphere got to be the way it is today!

    Comment by ethan — January 23, 2009 #

  10. […] to terraform it! It’s easy! Ethan Siegel over at Starts With a Bang concludes that there are only three things that we would really need to […]

    Pingback by Carnival of Space #87 « The Martian Chronicles — January 23, 2009 #

  11. Mars’s core is already molten - all the geophysical data and modelling says as much. The problem is that the currents in the core that generate a field have died away for some reason. So kick starting the magnetic field might be easier than we first imagine.

    Alternatively wrap some humungous superconducting cables around the Red Planet and set a current running sufficient to make the shield we want.

    Finally, even though it is an oft repeated claim, Mars is losing atmosphere to the solar wind, what isn’t usually discussed is the magnitude of the loss. The high loss-rate when most of its original air was blown away was due to the solar-wind being 1000 times stronger than today. The Sun has settled down a lot since then and the present day loss rate would be quite small. A magnetic field might be nice to keep the cosmic ray flux down, but it shouldn’t be seen as an absolute necessity.

    Comment by Adam — January 23, 2009 #

  12. I think the problem with the atmosphere is more than the magnetic field. Looking at Venus the magnetic field is ~10^-5 that of earth. Something has to replenish it faster than the solar wind and weak gravity strip it away.

    Comment by Jim — January 23, 2009 #

  13. Just drop kudzu on the martian equator and watch the fun.

    Comment by mark a. thomas — January 23, 2009 #

  14. […] “Amazingly, there are only three things weโ€™d need to do to Mars to make it ready to populate… […]

    Pingback by Terraforming Mars in Three Simple Steps | The Blog of Record — January 23, 2009 #

  15. Isn’t there already a lot of water and CO2 locked up in the poles and permafrost of Mars? Slamming asteroids into the martian poles would evaporate a lot of water and CO2, which would act as greenhouse gases and maybe heat the planet enough to release a lot of the permafrost.
    The phoenix lander has already analyzed the soil, found ice under it and determined that it is suitable to grow plants in.
    I think Adam has a good point. You could wrap huge superconducting cables around Mars, of put them in high orbit even.

    Comment by David — January 24, 2009 #

  16. Mars is volatile rich and bitterly cold. We need to give it a major industrial defrost to make it Earth-like.

    Comment by Adam — January 25, 2009 #

  17. David,
    That was precisely the model that is used in the Star Trek universe to terraform Mars: slam comets and asteroids into the polar caps to evolve the volatiles there. I’m not necessarily advocating that idea, but it is nice when scifi tries to do something that might actually make sense.

    Comment by Brian — January 27, 2009 #

  18. If the Martian Core is truly molten we may have a shot. We do need to figure out how to make it generate a magnetic field, but perhaps making a great solenoid would have a shot?

    Comment by ethan — January 29, 2009 #

  19. why stop at mars? as soon as we figure out a way to start making mars hospitable, we will need to start finding ways to escape our solar system. Isn’t our sun due for explosion in a couple billion anyways. Ha Ha colonize outer space…..

    Comment by dani — February 24, 2009 #

  20. Well, you may be putting the cart before the horse, but umm… well, it is stimulus package time. Give it a shot!

    Comment by ethan — February 24, 2009 #

  21. thank you for the information …….

    Comment by Alex — March 3, 2009 #

  22. Seems like you may be better off stealing an icy moon and a gassy moon from Saturn or Jupiter to add mass/water/atmosphere to Mars. Maybe raid the asteroid belt just beyond Mars for ice. You need more water than what;s there, for sure. It’s all moot until you manage a way to magnetize mars to protect from the solar wind. But if you’re moving planetoids, why not just move Venus further out, into Mars’ orbit and magnetize it? It’s almost the same size as the Earth. Of course there’s that retrograde rotation problem… and the whole hot-as-a-self-cleaning oven problem…:)

    Comment by nick — March 10, 2009 #

  23. […] Moon TheSpacewriter’s Ramblings Footage from Barack Obamas parade featuring the NASA float. Terraforming Mars: What it takes Starts With A Bang! This is all in the news again due to the hype around methane. Is Space Travel […]

    Pingback by Link list – 22nd January 2009 | Astronomy Link List — April 6, 2009 #

  24. I loved this post. I enjoy sitting around dreaming of such prospects (when i was younger i used to dream of inhabiting a planet the size of Jupiter so that there would be plenty of room :P ) Anyways, i DO think it is necessary to find another home from earth. Populations will not cease to increase, and we are getting crowded as it is. What will happen with this population growth is a planet with every piece of dry land built up like New York City. At which point, without vegetation we would die, so it isn’t a matter of If we should do it, it is How Quickly can we do it, that is the question at stake.

    The planet’s natural history (if anything significant) would certainly be disturbed with terraforming the planet, however, realistically our two options are either 1) spend massive amounts of economic and natural resources to fund and produce the energy required to send scientists up there to excavate (and if we consider the fact that we’ve still not unearthed all the artifacts to paint an accurate picture of our own history here on it seems like our resources would completely run out before any significant advancements.) or 2) terraform and excavate what we can while in the comfort of an inhabitable planet without the need for expensive and restricting suits. terraforming the planet would certainly not Destroy the artifacts relatively close to the surface. it would be a good idea to give ‘er the ol college try, though, before terraforming — if we find something then we’ll know to take greater care during the process. when working to heat the core we’ll be digging pretty deeply anyways so if we run into scientific gold near the to-be-core region (which WILL be destroyed) then that care that i spoke of earlier will kick in and some more time will be spent investigating that before commencing further.

    The magnetic field — if we go with heating the core it would be relatively easy to do it using atomic bombs. a 1 Megaton weapon gives off about 4.18×10^15 Joules of energy[see bottom for the website cited]. definitely not the 1.6×10^26J that we need, but it’s a step in the right direction and the cheapest off the top of my head. the downside, of course, would be radiation. i know that airbursting atomic weaponry in the atmosphere would be catastrophic, showering the planet with toxic radiation — but i don’t know the extent if done in the core. this area could be contemplated for a while, but i’ll move on. The Tsar Bomba was ~50Megatons, which was the largest ever made, and produced ~2.1ร—10^17J.[Link 2 at bottom for reference]. One thing to keep in mind, though, is that approximately half of the energy produced is actual thermal energy. the rest would not be lost, but it would not assist in heating the core very much. Again, i don’t know the ultimate consequences of this, but cost-wise and energy-wise it seems to be our best bet.

    Another method could be to just set up a nuclear powerplant (which would be INCREDIBLY expensive to send all the parts and pieces to Mars along with a crew to maintain and run it) and send its power down to the core. I guess this would essentially be more efficiently using the nuclear fission principles of the atomic bomb in a more controlled and wholly ‘cleaner’ manner.

    something else we could consider trying, although even more expensive, would be to set up the nuclear power plant (or two or three) and drive ALL of the current through one thick-ass wire that circumnavigates the globe at the equator. current driven through the ‘coil’ will produce a magnetic field that may give us the results we want (google ‘magnetic field coil’ and check the images for an idea of how the magnetic field looks with this). if you are genuinely interested in this method shoot me an email and i’ll crunch some numbers for you to give you an estimate on how much electricity it would require to generate such a field given the Mars radius and possible across-sectional area. note that the magnetic field of the earth is ~1/2 Gauss, which isn’t all that strong.

    -Michael

    http://www.atomicarchive.com/Effects/effects1.shtml

    Comment by Michael — May 4, 2009 #

  25. I need some information on the social and environmental issues of terraforming Mars. This is for my Science project at school. Thks in advance
    - Oliver

    Comment by Oliver Lee — May 27, 2009 #

  26. fUNFNN

    Comment by Pmjmpxxl — July 13, 2009 #

  27. I think in order to protect mars solar winds we could do a little bit of both solutions. magnetize the planet ever so slightly and reheat the planets core half way so as to not take as long. and about a month or so after the first launch we send up the 20% of our atmosphere and some green house gases so that the core doesn’t freeze again. then send some plant life along some of earth’s less dangerous less needed bacteria so the planet isn’t poisoind and earth doesn’t die out either. then a few years later after the plants have produced some oxygen we send a few of earths species land, sea, and air. keep tabs on them to see if the planet will support life then we can move up there.

    Comment by William smith — August 15, 2009 #

  28. The easy answer is to dump a heap of politions on the planet and the hot air they produce, mars would be inhabitable in no time.

    Comment by Jeffrey — September 2, 2009 #

  29. i thank its great that we could terroform mars into a earth like planet but theres only one thing, i know anything is possible but wouldnt it be eazer to find a way to move venus back some from the son, it already has a thick atomosohere and its clounds have water vapor, idk eather way is fine and i love mars but it seems like a lot less work with venus.

    Comment by Ryan — September 8, 2009 #

  30. It seems like Mars currently has plenty of wind & solar energy generating capabilities. If we made sure the very 1st step towards terraforming we took was to create sustainable magnetic fields at 2 opposite pole positions. It might be slow going but it would be safer when we finally got to the human portion of the project. Initially we need to send the prototypes & components materials needed for solar powered Replicators to begin harvesting minerals from the north & south poles. The minerals they collect will first be used to create more Replicators. Once sufficient quantities have been created, they can begin building supplemental energy sources by way of windmills that should just about encompass Mars’ equator. Some of the Replicators task would be to convert the abundant silica into large solar panels. Others would begin the process of creating synthetic diamonds ( these will be need for deeper burrowing into the north and south poles, as well as conducting the enormous amounts of energy that will be required to electrically magnetize the new poles ) After all Replicators have successfully burrowed about 30 miles down into the newly created pole regions, and all wind and solar arrays have been activated, they will all perform their final act which is to become the material the new electro-magnets of the new poles are made of.

    Comment by Joseph — September 27, 2009 #

  31. Going back to the magnetic field, I had a foolish dream the other night that I was in a seminar and the presenter was saying that the reason Earth has a magnetic field is because of moon and the molten core. The moon hold the core in place due to tidal attraction and the Earth rotates around the core thus generating a Magnetic field. Mars does not because, its moons do not exert enough pull to hold it place even if Mars may have a molten core.

    Possible?

    Comment by KMGuru — October 18, 2009 #

  32. To heat the core of Mars . . . move Mars closer to the sun. Why not move Mars on the exact opposite side of the sun from earth? The technology doesn’t exist yet to be able to move Mars, but it simplifies a LOT of other issues surrounding colonization, travel, creating an atmosphere, and terra forming.

    Comment by John Bagwell — October 30, 2009 #

  33. OK, let’s see what we have at our disposal.

    1. TONS of greenhouse gasses which Mars needs and we are supposedly killing our planet with. So we need to create a device that would collect these gasses and a system to transport to Mars. It would also boost our economy since unrestricted creation of greenhouse gasses would uninhibited manufacturing and agriculture, giving us all the goodies we want, Hummers, Escalades, Lamborghini’s, Kobe beef, and a personal jet for everyone, but without the consequences of an uninhabitable home planet. Excess would not only be promoted, but necessary for our survival and the project, thus filling in humanities two opposing natural instincts and used for the greater good. (It doesn’t matter which side of the political spectrum you fall on, if we got rid of the gasses and sent them to Mars where they are desperately needed…. problem solved!) (A kibosh on carbon credits too. Instead we would be paying for shipping!)

    2. We have a nuclear arsenal that could blow ourselves to kingdom come many times over. This could be used to power many nuclear reactors on Mars, especially in the polar regions where we want to melt the ice and the ice is needed for the steam power anyways. We could get water into the atmosphere, and possibly use it to power some sort of artificial magnetic field until we can make a core like Earth has. (What would Iranian leaders faces look like when we told them that we inadvertently sent their uranium to Mars for enrichment processing!) (Also, on the subject of making a magnetic field. Come on, we built a hadron collider under the border of France and Switzerland, why not on a larger scale under the polar regions of mars that we could use to create a magnetic field. The resulting antimatter could be used to power our future space traveling vehicles with as an added bonus…)

    3. We always want to out-do ourselves. From the pyramids of Gaza and Maya, Tesla versus Edison, to the nuclear arsenals and cold war efforts of the Soviets and the US, and everything in between; we thrive on competition as a species. Mars North and Mars South could be our next great competition. As for the naysayers who don’t believe we don’t have enough power to change the atmosphere on Mars. Many people say we can are doing it to Earth now, why not Mars?

    In all, I don’t only think that it is possible, but that it is necessary for humans to terraform and colonize Mars. We have 7 billion people living on Earth and are expected to grow to something like 27 billion in the next 100 + years bringing about food riots, wars, and eventually the apocalypse and all that. (Instead of a โ€œMadmaxโ€ world where an antisemitic saves the day for a group of unruly mentally challenged children against a horde of mutated bad guys with an 80’s singer with questionable acting skills as their leader, we could have the โ€œGovernatorโ€ save the martian horde of mutates by discovering and unlocking an alien device which would solve the transforming issue for us anyway) It would provide the necessary boost to the economy, save the planet, and fulfill the dreams of all of us who look out into space in wonder. We could even get Al Gore and George W Bush to both sign on and do a movie about it. Two opposing movies of course, so that the anti-partisanship could remain intact and be used for the competition theory but with both sides making the conclusion to terraform Mars. (I know, I’m sick… Just know that I mean it all in light humor to bring a smile to your face and not to insult.)

    Comment by Chris — December 6, 2009 #

  34. what would fix both the problems of the atmousphere and the magnetic feild would be an increase in mass. It is estimated that the earth is at about the smaller end of the habitable size range. all of the enerjy which earths core has was created from kinetic enerjy formed by asteroid impacts. hence if you could persuade a large number of asteroids to collide with the planet you could get the mass and the heat to serve the required perpous to creat another earth. By most calculations the asteroid belt that resides about one AU from mars would have at least as much mass as earth so more than enough rock to give mars enough size to hold down a stable atmousphere and a molten core

    Comment by George — January 23, 2010 #

  35. Terraforming Mars is relatively easy and cost efficient if we really look at the technology we have right now, and work as a planet to develop better ones. We already have perfluorocarbons, artificially created chlorofluorocarbons that have as much as 100 times more energy in them. All we have to do is send in millions of those perfluorocarbons with some of our atmospheric gas we have right now (in pressure containers), and bam, in about a decade, Mars will already be heating up. As for the magnetic field, slamming in a huge asteroid would create a huge shock, which could shake up the core, and make the molten rock in the core move faster. That would eventually create a magnetic field. And huge amounts of heat would be released as well (an added bonus). This is pretty easy, considering Newton’s law, an object in motion stays in motion unless another force is acted upon it. So using nuclear powered boosters on rockets and making them either push asteroids to Mars, or latching onto the asteroids and driving them into Mars would make this very easy. Also, importing more water from Ceres, the dwarf planet in between Earth and Mars, would help with the greenhouse gas (warming) process. Once Mars has heated up significantly, anaerobic bacteria could be sent, paving the way for more complex life forms. If we start within the next decade, we could have life on Mars pretty soon! Although the cost is high, if all the nations of the world pool together their resources, it wouldn’t be so much. (And as an added bonus, we would have world peace for working together!)

    Comment by Prodigy — January 25, 2010 #

  36. I think we should blast olympus mons with a nuclear weapon or astroid. if that volcano erupts, then mars would get warmer. Its easy too. just have to create a pocket for the magma.
    marshas magma just to make clear. After the volcano erupts ash would be everywhere and can add thickness (c02) to the atosphere. After a few years, the ash would have cleared, and bam! instant warmness. my thoery might be wrong.

    Comment by refresh — March 15, 2010 #

  37. Mars, Is and could be the only planet we could wish to terraform within a century. Mars is there to be mankinds back up. All of the ideas we have could be possible. But there are rumors of Obama cutting Nasa funds, So if thats true. Nobody might be terraforming Mars anytime soon or going there for the matter

    Comment by Caeden — May 9, 2010 #

  38. Surely if you managed to hit up the core your second main problem would be doing it without making the planet unstable for another billion years.

    I can’t imagine how we could heat it up without starting off volcanoes and daily Earthquakes.

    Comment by Alien — June 1, 2010 #

  39. The concept with Venus is to create a shield to cut off sunlight allowing the planets atmosphere to rain down onto the surface then freeze. The concept allows a soletta in polar orbit to provide a normal 24 hour day.
    So could a similar shield cut off the solar wind allowing a soletta in polar orbit to provide sunlight? Would make for a weird day.
    When I say shield I dont mean a star trek style shield I mean a real thin shield two to three times teh width of the planet in solar orbit.

    Comment by Brian — June 17, 2010 #

  40. The real problem is that mars simply doesn’t have enough mass to really support life. It only has roughly 38% of the mass of earth so humans couldn’t really live healthily on its surface. The effects of low gravity environments on human bodies is extremely detrimental. By using some of the larger, movable objects (for instance Jupiter has like 50 extra, temporary moons that could be moved) in our solar system we could crash them into mars adding mass and creating a magnetosphere with all the heat created in the core from the impacts(a lot). Moving these objects could be achieved with a spaceship full of uranium. Uranium is the second heaviest stable element and we could use its gravitational pull to move large asteroids which would then move larger objects with their gravity. So you see, this would solve several problems with the same stone, using something everyone wants to get rid of to make a habitable planet for future generations of humans. Unfortunately this will take a lot of time.

    Comment by Guy — June 19, 2010 #

  41. We’ve already been traveling to Mars for almost sixty years. I know you’ll all write me off as a loonie for saying this, but there is maybe one or two of you that are open-minded enough to find the truth about what’s REALLY been going on behind the public space program. NASA has been lying to us for a long time. No, I don’t believe that the lunar landings were hoaxed. Just because they couldn’t take a good picture and had to fake a lot of them doesn’t mean man never stepped foot on this satellite.
    As to Mars, what I’m talking about, of course, is the fact that there are underground bases there, and if you look in the right places, you’ll find these facts. There are propulsion drives that exist NOW that take man to and from Mars. The Aurora space program has been around for a long time, and it uses a He3 fission drive. Yes, I know, this sounds like Sci-Fi. But it is truth. Whistleblowers have risked their lives and their friends and families to bring this out. You will NEVER hear this on the mainstream news.
    Please don’t be tied in to the science that was taught us– the “laws” of heat and thermodynamics are nothing more than that. Quantum physics has turn science on its side– why not other previously held beliefs shifted as well?
    Anyway now the Aurora is being replaced with a matter-antimatter drive, and the Aurora is what will replace the junky old Space Shuttle.
    Terraforming? Yes, the technology has been given to us by offworld civilizations, and indeed, it has been initiated on Mars. If you want to know what the best greenhouse gas of all is, it’s water vapor. Not CO2, or methane.
    Look up The Disclosure Project, who’s behind it and why. Do a search on Bob Dean.
    The ARE such things as stargates. Not like the show, but actual portals to other places and dimensions. And, as you’d expect, the military and its black ops divisions control them. As do the ETs who use them as well. I know some of this strays off topic, but I want to throw a wrench into this mainstream-type discussion.
    Now don’t just sit back, without doing some research and really trying to prove these things wrong, and say I’m a nutcase. I’m one of the sanest people you will meet. Sure, most people here will, but there will be a few, maybe one or two, that feel my sincerity, and honestly and with an open mind look into what I’m saying.
    I’ve not told one thing here that isn’t VERIFIABLE FACT.
    Well, have a nice day, eveyone!

    Comment by saturnx311 — June 21, 2010 #

  42. Oh, reading my post over, I didn’t give more than 2 sources. Believe me, there are MANY more. So don’t think I just took the word of a few people to say what I’ve said. And here was just a tiny snippet of what I’ve found out. You will find lies and garbage but you’ll find the truth too. It’s learning to discern between the two that is a process all by itself. So have fun. If you remain calm and don’t be too prideful of the paradigm you are thinking within now, you will find out things of which you’ve never dreamed.
    Thanks.

    Comment by saturnx311 — June 21, 2010 #

  43. Hello everybody
    I’m sorry to say but somebody caled Noam
    already design a scheme - in 1988 I think
    at the “Together to Mars” Contest - to blow all
    our nuclear weapons on Mars in order to thicken
    its atmosphere.
    What happened to that idea ??

    Comment by Andreas — June 28, 2010 #

  44. wonderful—–mars—-from—name—-montra—trimek—-pig—-thailand——-thankyou—-nasa—-and—-mars

    Comment by montra---trimek---pig---thailand-- — August 1, 2010 #

  45. Been thinking about this since I was about 5.
    The very notion that any planet could possibly be even close to Earth has always intrigued me. I hope we will be able to accomplish the feat of terraforming Mars very soon.

    Comment by Anoynomous — August 20, 2010 #

  46. Jeg lugte a KUT!

    Comment by :D:D — August 24, 2010 #

  47. you guyz all nerd

    Comment by Nerd — September 2, 2010 #

  48. Mars is a very good place for us to be. There’s plenty of materials for creating fusion reactions, lots of heavy water. Personaly I think creating colonies here and utilizing the material on mars is a good start. We should think of how to generate a magnetic or some other protective barrier from the sun’s radiation before we start trying to develope the planet’s atmosphere.

    Comment by Alex — September 12, 2010 #

  49. We don’t understand what the consequences of our actions on Earth are doing to the environment. Melting polar caps, massive oil spills in the Gulf of Mexico, deforestation of the Amazon, mass extinctions, atmospheric pollution, etc…

    Terraforming Mars is an awesome idea, but at this rate we may have to Terraform Earth first….

    We must as a species move out in to space and use the resources that are out there. But we must stop destroying Earth first.

    Comment by Troglobyte0 — September 16, 2010 #

  50. I think the most resource efficient way to make up for the lack of magnetic field would be to create a megastructure - a solar filter about 15,000 kilometres across orbiting the Sun in the Lagrange point in front of Mars.

    It would shield the planet from dangerous radiation from the Sun and protect the atmosphere from the solar wind. It should be quite thin and probably invisible from the planet. Of course it would have to be kept in place occasionally by rockets because of the gravitational disturbances from the other planets.

    Actually we already have man-made structures this size. If you regard eg. the entire railway network on Earth as one structure, it is at this scale. The thing is to build it in space (which has the advantage of zero gravity). Materials could be mined in the Asteroids, and the shield could be built by robots. The building process could be as slow as the terraforming itself.

    I imagine it consisting of hexagonal cells about 100 km across, slightly tilted so the solar wind would actually be let through the filter (so it wouldn’t work like a solar sail), but be deflected away from the planet.

    It shold be maintained constantly, of course, and damages from meteorids should be repaired.

    A similar shield in front of a terraformed Venus could keep the planet cool, and permeability to visible light could be regulated in a 24-hour cycle to create Earth-like “days” and “nights”. The night side of the planet should also have artificial days originating from 10,000 km mirrors in the Lagrange points 60 degrees before and after Venus in its orbit.

    Instead of shielding Venus with artificial rings which would disturb both satellite communication (the geostationary orbit is FAR from the planet) and space travel, I think “Lagrangian optics” is a far more cost efficient solution for both Mars and Venus.

    Maybe even Mercury - so the low-gravity Martians could go on a sunny holiday somewhere :)

    Comment by Peter — September 25, 2010 #

  51. take care of earth people unles yall wanna die MAN poor animals gosh

    Comment by layla — September 27, 2010 #

  52. omg i dont think its a good idea 4 us to go live in mars i think what we should worry about is taking care of planet earth 1st because theres alot of endangered animals and also global warning and i dont want 2 DIE yet i want to live so its all of yall choice

    Comment by hannah smile — September 27, 2010 #

  53. Once you guys have figured it out can I be Eve?

    Comment by hehe — September 28, 2010 #

  54. your all fags

    Comment by jayleno — October 4, 2010 #

  55. amazing

    Comment by ramesh — October 5, 2010 #

  56. it is very amazing
    &
    helpfull

    Comment by rah — October 7, 2010 #

  57. HEy i love your work. but ive found way better stuff so ahahaha did you know mars is a big red planet

    Comment by national Geo explorer — October 12, 2010 #

  58. hey hey hey im fat albert

    Comment by bob in a hat — October 12, 2010 #

  59. hey i like mars it is a very cool planet and it seems so interesting and i would never ever like to learn more because i dont like mars i like earth baby!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    Comment by micheal jackson baby dun dun duuuuuuuuunnn — October 12, 2010 #

  60. hey marsians.. my name is TIM BUR and i like chicken poo in my mouth

    Comment by justin time, AKA TIM BUR — October 12, 2010 #

  61. :@ :P :O :) XD hello kis.. i like kids.. but i like mars better because mars is red just like my cow named reddy who makes strawberry milk

    Comment by :P :) :D XD — October 12, 2010 #

  62. Mars is a very good place for us to be. Thereโ€™s plenty of materials for creating fusion reactions, lots of heavy water. Personaly I think creating colonies here and utilizing the material on mars is a good start. We should think of how to generate a magnetic or some other protective barrier from the sunโ€™s radiation before we start trying to develope the planetโ€™s atmosphere.
    deflected away from the planet.

    It shold be maintained constantly, of course, and damages from meteorids should be repaired.

    A similar shield in front of a terraformed Venus could keep the planet cool, and permeability to visible light could be regulated in a 24-hour cycle to create Earth-like โ€œdaysโ€ and โ€œnightsโ€. The night side of the planet should also have artificial days originating from 10,000 km mirrors in the Lagrange points 60 degrees before and after Venus in its orbit.I think we should blast olympus mons with a nuclear weapon or astroid. if that volcano erupts, then mars would get warmer. Its easy too. just have to create a pocket for the magma.
    marshas magma just to make clear. After the volcano erupts ash would be everywhere and can add thickness (c02) to the atosphere. After a few years, the ash would have cleared, and bam! instant warmness. my thoery might be wrong.

    Comment by refresh โ€” March 15, 2010 #

    Mars, Is and could be the only planet we could wish to terraform within a century. Mars is there to be mankinds back up. All of the ideas we have could be possible. But there are rumors of Obama cutting Nasa funds, So if thats true. Nobody might be terraforming Mars anytime soon or going there for the matter

    Comment by Caeden โ€” May 9, 2010 #

    Surely if you managed to hit up the core your second main problem would be doing it without making the planet unstable for another billion years.

    I canโ€™t imagine how we could heat it up without starting off volcanoes and daily Earthquakes.

    Comment by Alien โ€” June 1, 2010 #

    The concept with Venus is to create a shield to cut off sunlight allowing the planets atmosphere to rain down onto the surface then freeze. The concept allows a soletta in polar orbit to provide a normal 24 hour day.
    So could a similar shield cut off the solar wind allowing a soletta in polar orbit to provide sunlight? Would make for a weird day.
    When I say shield I dont mean a star trek style shield I mean a real thin shield two to three times teh width of the planet in solar orbit.

    Comment by Brian โ€” June 17, 2010 #

    The real problem is that mars simply doesnโ€™t have enough mass to really support life. It only has roughly 38% of the mass of earth so humans couldnโ€™t really live healthily on its surface. The effects of low gravity environments on human bodies is extremely detrimental. By using some of the larger, movable objects (for instance Jupiter has like 50 extra, temporary moons that could be moved) in our solar system we could crash them into mars adding mass and creating a magnetosphere with all the heat created in the core from the impacts(a lot). Moving these objects could be achieved with a spaceship full of uranium. Uranium is the second heaviest stable element and we could use its gravitational pull to move large asteroids which would then move larger objects with their gravity. So you see, this would solve several problems with the same stone, using something everyone wants to get rid of to make a habitable planet for future generations of humans. Unfortunately this will take a lot of time.

    Comment by Guy โ€” June 19, 2010 #

    Weโ€™ve already been traveling to Mars for almost sixty years. I know youโ€™ll all write me off as a loonie for saying this, but there is maybe one or two of you that are open-minded enough to find the truth about whatโ€™s REALLY been going on behind the public space program. NASA has been lying to us for a long time. No, I donโ€™t believe that the lunar landings were hoaxed. Just because they couldnโ€™t take a good picture and had to fake a lot of them doesnโ€™t mean man never stepped foot on this satellite.
    As to Mars, what Iโ€™m talking about, of course, is the fact that there are underground bases there, and if you look in the right places, youโ€™ll find these facts. There are propulsion drives that exist NOW that take man to and from Mars. The Aurora space program has been around for a long time, and it uses a He3 fission drive. Yes, I know, this sounds like Sci-Fi. But it is truth. Whistleblowers have risked their lives and their friends and families to bring this out. You will NEVER hear this on the mainstream news.
    Please donโ€™t be tied in to the science that was taught usโ€“ the โ€œlawsโ€ of heat and thermodynamics are nothing more than that. Quantum physics has turn science on its sideโ€“ why not other previously held beliefs shifted as well?
    Anyway now the Aurora is being replaced with a matter-antimatter drive, and the Aurora is what will replace the junky old Space Shuttle.
    Terraforming? Yes, the technology has been given to us by offworld civilizations, and indeed, it has been initiated on Mars. If you want to know what the best greenhouse gas of all is, itโ€™s water vapor. Not CO2, or methane.
    Look up The Disclosure Project, whoโ€™s behind it and why. Do a search on Bob Dean.
    The ARE such things as stargates. Not like the show, but actual portals to other places and dimensions. And, as youโ€™d expect, the military and its black ops divisions control them. As do the ETs who use them as well. I know some of this strays off topic, but I want to throw a wrench into this mainstream-type discussion.
    Now donโ€™t just sit back, without doing some research and really trying to prove these things wrong, and say Iโ€™m a nutcase. Iโ€™m one of the sanest people you will meet. Sure, most people here will, but there will be a few, maybe one or two, that feel my sincerity, and honestly and with an open mind look into what Iโ€™m saying.
    Iโ€™ve not told one thing here that isnโ€™t VERIFIABLE FACT.
    Well, have a nice day, eveyone!

    Comment by saturnx311 โ€” June 21, 2010 #

    Oh, reading my post over, I didnโ€™t give more than 2 sources. Believe me, there are MANY more. So donโ€™t think I just took the word of a few people to say what Iโ€™ve said. And here was just a tiny snippet of what Iโ€™ve found out. You will find lies and garbage but youโ€™ll find the truth too. Itโ€™s learning to discern between the two that is a process all by itself. So have fun. If you remain calm and donโ€™t be too prideful of the paradigm you are thinking within now, you will find out things of which youโ€™ve never dreamed.
    Thanks.

    Comment by saturnx311 โ€” June 21, 2010 #

    Hello everybody
    Iโ€™m sorry to say but somebody caled Noam
    already design a scheme - in 1988 I think
    at the โ€œTogether to Marsโ€ Contest - to blow all
    our nuclear weapons on Mars in order to thicken
    its atmosphere.
    What happened to that idea ??

    Comment by Andreas โ€” June 28, 2010 #

    wonderfulโ€”โ€“marsโ€”-fromโ€”nameโ€”-montraโ€”trimekโ€”-pigโ€”-thailandโ€”โ€”-thankyouโ€”-nasaโ€”-andโ€”-mars

    Comment by montra—trimek—pig—thailand– โ€” August 1, 2010 #

    Been thinking about this since I was about 5.
    The very notion that any planet could possibly be even close to Earth has always intrigued me. I hope we will be able to accomplish the feat of terraforming Mars very soon.

    Comment by Anoynomous โ€” August 20, 2010 #

    Jeg lugte a KUT!

    Comment by :D:D โ€” August 24, 2010 #

    you guyz all nerd

    Comment by Nerd โ€” September 2, 2010 #

    Mars is a very good place for us to be. Thereโ€™s plenty of materials for creating fusion reactions, lots of heavy water. Personaly I think creating colonies here and utilizing the material on mars is a good start. We should think of how to generate a magnetic or some other protective barrier from the sunโ€™s radiation before we start trying to develope the planetโ€™s atmosphere.

    Comment by Alex โ€” September 12, 2010 #

    We donโ€™t understand what the consequences of our actions on Earth are doing to the environment. Melting polar caps, massive oil spills in the Gulf of Mexico, deforestation of the Amazon, mass extinctions, atmospheric pollution, etcโ€ฆ

    Terraforming Mars is an awesome idea, but at this rate we may have to Terraform Earth firstโ€ฆ.

    We must as a species move out in to space and use the resources that are out there. But we must stop destroying Earth first.

    Comment by Troglobyte0 โ€” September 16, 2010 #

    I think the most resource efficient way to make up for the lack of magnetic field would be to create a megastructure - a solar filter about 15,000 kilometres across orbiting the Sun in the Lagrange point in front of Mars.

    It would shield the planet from dangerous radiation from the Sun and protect the atmosphere from the solar wind. It should be quite thin and probably invisible from the planet. Of course it would have to be kept in place occasionally by rockets because of the gravitational disturbances from the other planets.

    Actually we already have man-made structures this size. If you regard eg. the entire railway network on Earth as one structure, it is at this scale. The thing is to build it in space (which has the advantage of zero gravity). Materials could be mined in the Asteroids, and the shield could be built by robots. The building process could be as slow as the terraforming itself.

    I imagine it consisting of hexagonal cells about 100 km across, slightly tilted so the solar wind would actually be let through the filter (so it wouldnโ€™t work like a solar sail), but be deflected away from the planet.

    It shold be maintained constantly, of course, and damages from meteorids should be repaired.

    A similar shield in front of a terraformed Venus could keep the planet cool, and permeability to visible light could be regulated in a 24-hour cycle to create Earth-like โ€œdaysโ€ and โ€œnightsโ€. The night side of the planet should also have artificial days originating from 10,000 km mirrors in the Lagrange points 60 degrees before and after Venus in its orbit.

    Instead of shielding Venus with artificial rings which would disturb both satellite communication (the geostationary orbit is FAR from the planet) and space travel, I think โ€œLagrangian opticsโ€ is a far more cost efficient solution for both Mars and Venus.

    Maybe even Mercury - so the low-gravity Martians could go on a sunny holiday somewhere

    Comment by Peter โ€” September 25, 2010 #

    take care of earth people unles yall wanna die MAN poor animals gosh

    Comment by layla โ€” September 27, 2010 #

    omg i dont think its a good idea 4 us to go live in mars i think what we should worry about is taking care of planet earth 1st because theres alot of endangered animals and also global warning and i dont want 2 DIE yet i want to live so its all of yall choice

    Comment by hannah smile โ€” September 27, 2010 #

    Once you guys have figured it out can I be Eve?

    Comment by hehe โ€” September 28, 2010 #

    your all fags

    Comment by jayleno โ€” October 4, 2010 #

    amazing

    Comment by ramesh โ€” October 5, 2010 #

    it is very amazing
    &
    helpfull

    Comment by rah โ€” October 7, 2010 #

    HEy i love your work. but ive found way better stuff so ahahaha did you know mars is a big red planet

    Comment by national Geo explorer โ€” October 12, 2010 #

    hey hey hey im fat albert

    Comment by bob in a hat โ€” October 12, 2010 #

    hey i like mars it is a very cool planet and it seems so interesting and i would never ever like to learn more because i dont like mars i like earth baby!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    Comment by micheal jackson baby dun dun duuuuuuuuunnn โ€” October 12, 2010 #

    hey marsians.. my name is TIM BUR and i like chicken poo in my mouth

    Comment by justin time, AKA TIM BUR โ€” October 12, 2010 #

    :@ :O XD hello kis.. i like kids.. but i like mars better because mars is red just like my cow named reddy who makes strawberry milk

    Comment by :P :) :D XD โ€” October 12, 2010 #

    Leave a comment
    Name (required)

    Mail (will not be published) (required)

    Website

    Mars is a very good place for us to be. Thereโ€™s plenty of materials for creating fusion reactions, lots of heavy water. Personaly I think creating colonies here and utilizing the material on mars is a good start. We should think of how to generate a magnetic or some other protective barrier from the sunโ€™s radiation before we start trying to develope the planetโ€™s atmosphere.
    deflected away from the planet.

    It shold be maintained constantly, of course, and damages from meteorids should be repaired.

    A similar shield in front of a terraformed Venus could keep the planet cool, and permeability to visible light could be regulated in a 24-hour cycle to create Earth-like โ€œdaysโ€ and โ€œnightsโ€. The night side of the planet should also have artificial days originating from 10,000 km mirrors in the Lagrange points 60 degrees before and after Venus in its orbit.

    Instead of shielding Venus with artificial rings which would disturb both satellite communication (the geostationary orbit is FAR from the planet) and space travel, I think โ€œLagrangian opticsโ€ is a far more cost efficient solution for both Mars and Venus

    XHTML:

    Instead of shielding Venus with artificial rings which would disturb both satellite communication (the geostationary orbit is FAR from the planet) and space travel, I think โ€œLagrangian opticsโ€ is a far more cost efficient solution for both Mars and Venus

    Comment by bobwazheremans — October 12, 2010 #

  63. be to create a megastructure - a solar filter about 15,000 kilometres across orbiting the Sun in the Lagrange point in front of Mars.

    It would shield the planet from dangerous radiation from the Sun and protect the atmosphere from the solar wind. It should be quite thin and probably invisible from the planet. Of course it would have to be kept in place occasionally by rockets because of the gravitational disturbances from the other planets.

    Actually we already have man-made structures this size. If you regard eg. the entire railway network on Earth as one structure, it is at this scale. The thing is to build it in space (which has the advantage of zero gravity). Materials could be mined in the Asteroids, and the shield could be built by robots. The building process could be as slow as the terraforming itself.

    I imagine it consisting of hexagonal cells about 100 km across, slightly tilted so the solar wind would actually be let through the filter (so it wouldnโ€™t work like a solar sail), but be deflected away from the planet.

    It shold be maintained constantly, of course, and damages from meteorids should be repaired.

    A similar shield in front of a terraformed Venus could keep the planet cool, and permeability to visible light could be regulated in a 24-hour cycle to create Earth-like โ€œdaysโ€ and โ€œnightsโ€. The night side of the planet should also have artificial days originating from 10,000 km mirrors in the Lagrange points 60 degrees before and after Venus in its orbit.

    Instead of shielding Venus with artificial rings which would disturb both satellite communication (the geostationary orbit is FAR from the planet) and space travel, I think โ€œLagrangian opticsโ€ is a far more cost efficient solution for both Mars and Venus.

    Maybe even Mercury - so the low-gravity Martians could go on a sunny holiday somewhere

    Comment by Peter โ€” September 25, 2010 #

    take care of earth people unles yall wanna die MAN poor animals gosh

    Comment by layla โ€” September 27, 2010 #

    omg i dont think its a good idea 4 us to go live in mars i think what we should worry about is taking care of planet earth 1st because theres alot of endangered animals and also global warning and i dont want 2 DIE yet i want to live so its all of yall choice

    Comment by hannah smile โ€” September 27, 2010 #

    Once you guys have figured it out can I be Eve?

    Comment by hehe โ€” September 28, 2010 #

    your all fags

    Comment by jayleno โ€” October 4, 2010 #

    amazing

    Comment by ramesh โ€” October 5, 2010 #

    it is very amazing
    &
    helpfull

    Comment by rah โ€” October 7, 2010 #

    HEy i love your work. but ive found way better stuff so ahahaha did you know mars is a big red planet

    Comment by national Geo explorer โ€” October 12, 2010 #

    hey hey hey im fat albert

    Comment by bob in a hat โ€” October 12, 2010 #

    hey i like mars it is a very cool planet and it seems so interesting and i would never ever like to learn more because i dont like mars i like earth baby!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    Comment by micheal jackson baby dun dun duuuuuuuuunnn โ€” October 12, 2010 #

    hey marsians.. my name is TIM BUR and i like chicken poo in my mouth

    Comment by justin time, AKA TIM BUR โ€” October 12, 2010 #

    :@ :O XD hello kis.. i like kids.. but i like mars better because mars is red just like my cow named reddy who makes strawberry milk

    Comment by :P :) :D XD โ€” October 12, 2010 #

    Mars is a very good place for us to be. Thereโ€™s plenty of materials for creating fusion reactions, lots of heavy water. Personaly I think creating colonies here and utilizing the material on mars is a good start. We should think of how to generate a magnetic or some other protective barrier from the sunโ€™s radiation before we start trying to develope the planetโ€™s atmosphere.
    deflected away from the planet.

    It shold be maintained constantly, of course, and damages from meteorids should be repaired.

    A similar shield in front of a terraformed Venus could keep the planet cool, and permeability to visible light could be regulated in a 24-hour cycle to create Earth-like โ€œdaysโ€ and โ€œnightsโ€. The night side of the planet should also have artificial days originating from 10,000 km mirrors in the Lagrange points 60 degrees before and after Venus in its orbit.I think we should blast olympus mons with a nuclear weapon or astroid. if that volcano erupts, then mars would get warmer. Its easy too. just have to create a pocket for the magma.
    marshas magma just to make clear. After the volcano erupts ash would be everywhere and can add thickness (c02) to the atosphere. After a few years, the ash would have cleared, and bam! instant warmness. my thoery might be wrong.

    Comment by refresh โ€” March 15, 2010 #

    Mars, Is and could be the only planet we could wish to terraform within a century. Mars is there to be mankinds back up. All of the ideas we have could be possible. But there are rumors of Obama cutting Nasa funds, So if thats true. Nobody might be terraforming Mars anytime soon or going there for the matter

    Comment by Caeden โ€” May 9, 2010 #

    Surely if you managed to hit up the core your second main problem would be doing it without making the planet unstable for another billion years.

    I canโ€™t imagine how we could heat it up without starting off volcanoes and daily Earthquakes.

    Comment by Alien โ€” June 1, 2010 #

    The concept with Venus is to create a shield to cut off sunlight allowing the planets atmosphere to rain down onto the surface then freeze. The concept allows a soletta in polar orbit to provide a normal 24 hour day.
    So could a similar shield cut off the solar wind allowing a soletta in polar orbit to provide sunlight? Would make for a weird day.
    When I say shield I dont mean a star trek style shield I mean a real thin shield two to three times teh width of the planet in solar orbit.

    Comment by Brian โ€” June 17, 2010 #

    The real problem is that mars simply doesnโ€™t have enough mass to really support life. It only has roughly 38% of the mass of earth so humans couldnโ€™t really live healthily on its surface. The effects of low gravity environments on human bodies is extremely detrimental. By using some of the larger, movable objects (for instance Jupiter has like 50 extra, temporary moons that could be moved) in our solar system we could crash them into mars adding mass and creating a magnetosphere with all the heat created in the core from the impacts(a lot). Moving these objects could be achieved with a spaceship full of uranium. Uranium is the second heaviest stable element and we could use its gravitational pull to move large asteroids which would then move larger objects with their gravity. So you see, this would solve several problems with the same stone, using something everyone wants to get rid of to make a habitable planet for future generations of humans. Unfortunately this will take a lot of time.

    Comment by Guy โ€” June 19, 2010 #

    Weโ€™ve already been traveling to Mars for almost sixty years. I know youโ€™ll all write me off as a loonie for saying this, but there is maybe one or two of you that are open-minded enough to find the truth about whatโ€™s REALLY been going on behind the public space program. NASA has been lying to us for a long time. No, I donโ€™t believe that the lunar landings were hoaxed. Just because they couldnโ€™t take a good picture and had to fake a lot of them doesnโ€™t mean man never stepped foot on this satellite.
    As to Mars, what Iโ€™m talking about, of course, is the fact that there are underground bases there, and if you look in the right places, youโ€™ll find these facts. There are propulsion drives that exist NOW that take man to and from Mars. The Aurora space program has been around for a long time, and it uses a He3 fission drive. Yes, I know, this sounds like Sci-Fi. But it is truth. Whistleblowers have risked their lives and their friends and families to bring this out. You will NEVER hear this on the mainstream news.
    Please donโ€™t be tied in to the science that was taught usโ€“ the โ€œlawsโ€ of heat and thermodynamics are nothing more than that. Quantum physics has turn science on its sideโ€“ why not other previously held beliefs shifted as well?
    Anyway now the Aurora is being replaced with a matter-antimatter drive, and the Aurora is what will replace the junky old Space Shuttle.
    Terraforming? Yes, the technology has been given to us by offworld civilizations, and indeed, it has been initiated on Mars. If you want to know what the best greenhouse gas of all is, itโ€™s water vapor. Not CO2, or methane.
    Look up The Disclosure Project, whoโ€™s behind it and why. Do a search on Bob Dean.
    The ARE such things as stargates. Not like the show, but actual portals to other places and dimensions. And, as youโ€™d expect, the military and its black ops divisions control them. As do the ETs who use them as well. I know some of this strays off topic, but I want to throw a wrench into this mainstream-type discussion.
    Now donโ€™t just sit back, without doing some research and really trying to prove these things wrong, and say Iโ€™m a nutcase. Iโ€™m one of the sanest people you will meet. Sure, most people here will, but there will be a few, maybe one or two, that feel my sincerity, and honestly and with an open mind look into what Iโ€™m saying.
    Iโ€™ve not told one thing here that isnโ€™t VERIFIABLE FACT.
    Well, have a nice day, eveyone!

    Comment by saturnx311 โ€” June 21, 2010 #

    Oh, reading my post over, I didnโ€™t give more than 2 sources. Believe me, there are MANY more. So donโ€™t think I just took the word of a few people to say what Iโ€™ve said. And here was just a tiny snippet of what Iโ€™ve found out. You will find lies and garbage but youโ€™ll find the truth too. Itโ€™s learning to discern between the two that is a process all by itself. So have fun. If you remain calm and donโ€™t be too prideful of the paradigm you are thinking within now, you will find out things of which youโ€™ve never dreamed.
    Thanks.

    Comment by saturnx311 โ€” June 21, 2010 #

    Hello everybody
    Iโ€™m sorry to say but somebody caled Noam
    already design a scheme - in 1988 I think
    at the โ€œTogether to Marsโ€ Contest - to blow all
    our nuclear weapons on Mars in order to thicken
    its atmosphere.
    What happened to that idea ??

    Comment by Andreas โ€” June 28, 2010 #

    wonderfulโ€”โ€“marsโ€”-fromโ€”nameโ€”-montraโ€”trimekโ€”-pigโ€”-thailandโ€”โ€”-thankyouโ€”-nasaโ€”-andโ€”-mars

    Comment by montraโ€”trimekโ€”pigโ€”thailandโ€“ โ€” August 1, 2010 #

    Been thinking about this since I was about 5.
    The very notion that any planet could possibly be even close to Earth has always intrigued me. I hope we will be able to accomplish the feat of terraforming Mars very soon.

    Comment by Anoynomous โ€” August 20, 2010 #

    Jeg lugte a KUT!

    Comment by :D:D โ€” August 24, 2010 #

    you guyz all nerd

    Comment by Nerd โ€” September 2, 2010 #

    Mars is a very good place for us to be. Thereโ€™s plenty of materials for creating fusion reactions, lots of heavy water. Personaly I think creating colonies here and utilizing the material on mars is a good start. We should think of how to generate a magnetic or some other protective barrier from the sunโ€™s radiation before we start trying to develope the planetโ€™s atmosphere.

    Comment by Alex โ€” September 12, 2010 #

    We donโ€™t understand what the consequences of our actions on Earth are doing to the environment. Melting polar caps, massive oil spills in the Gulf of Mexico, deforestation of the Amazon, mass extinctions, atmospheric pollution, etcโ€ฆ

    Terraforming Mars is an awesome idea, but at this rate we may have to Terraform Earth firstโ€ฆ.

    We must as a species move out in to space and use the resources that are out there. But we must stop destroying Earth first.

    Comment by Troglobyte0 โ€” September 16, 2010 #

    I think the most resource efficient way to make up for the lack of magnetic field would be to create a megastructure - a solar filter about 15,000 kilometres across orbiting the Sun in the Lagrange point in front of Mars.

    It would shield the planet from dangerous radiation from the Sun and protect the atmosphere from the solar wind. It should be quite thin and probably invisible from the planet. Of course it would have to be kept in place occasionally by rockets because of the gravitational disturbances from the other planets.

    Actually we already have man-made structures this size. If you regard eg. the entire railway network on Earth as one structure, it is at this scale. The thing is to build it in space (which has the advantage of zero gravity). Materials could be mined in the Asteroids, and the shield could be built by robots. The building process could be as slow as the terraforming itself.

    I imagine it consisting of hexagonal cells about 100 km across, slightly tilted so the solar wind would actually be let through the filter (so it wouldnโ€™t work like a solar sail), but be deflected away from the planet.

    It shold be maintained constantly, of course, and damages from meteorids should be repaired.

    A similar shield in front of a terraformed Venus could keep the planet cool, and permeability to visible light could be regulated in a 24-hour cycle to create Earth-like โ€œdaysโ€ and โ€œnightsโ€. The night side of the planet should also have artificial days originating from 10,000 km mirrors in the Lagrange points 60 degrees before and after Venus in its orbit.

    Instead of shielding Venus with artificial rings which would disturb both satellite communication (the geostationary orbit is FAR from the planet) and space travel, I think โ€œLagrangian opticsโ€ is a far more cost efficient solution for both Mars and Venus.

    Maybe even Mercury - so the low-gravity Martians could go on a sunny holiday somewhere

    Comment by Peter โ€” September 25, 2010 #

    take care of earth people unles yall wanna die MAN poor animals gosh

    Comment by layla โ€” September 27, 2010 #

    omg i dont think its a good idea 4 us to go live in mars i think what we should worry about is taking care of planet earth 1st because theres alot of endangered animals and also global warning and i dont want 2 DIE yet i want to live so its all of yall choice

    Comment by hannah smile โ€” September 27, 2010 #

    Once you guys have figured it out can I be Eve?

    Comment by hehe โ€” September 28, 2010 #

    your all fags

    Comment by jayleno โ€” October 4, 2010 #

    amazing

    Comment by ramesh โ€” October 5, 2010 #

    it is very amazing
    &
    helpfull

    Comment by rah โ€” October 7, 2010 #

    HEy i love your work. but ive found way better stuff so ahahaha did you know mars is a big red planet

    Comment by national Geo explorer โ€” October 12, 2010 #

    hey hey hey im fat albert

    Comment by bob in a hat โ€” October 12, 2010 #

    hey i like mars it is a very cool planet and it seems so interesting and i would never ever like to learn more because i dont like mars i like earth baby!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    Comment by micheal jackson baby dun dun duuuuuuuuunnn โ€” October 12, 2010 #

    hey marsians.. my name is TIM BUR and i like chicken poo in my mouth

    Comment by justin time, AKA TIM BUR โ€” October 12, 2010 #

    :@ :O XD hello kis.. i like kids.. but i like mars better because mars is red just like my cow named reddy who makes strawberry milk

    Comment by XD โ€” October 12, 2010 #

    Leave a comment
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    Mars is a very good place for us to be. Thereโ€™s plenty of materials for creating fusion reactions, lots of heavy water. Personaly I think creating colonies here and utilizing the material on mars is a good start. We should think of how to generate a magnetic or some other protective barrier from the sunโ€™s radiation before we start trying to develope the planetโ€™s atmosphere.
    deflected away from the planet.

    It shold be maintained constantly, of course, and damages from meteorids should be repaired.

    A similar shield in front of a terraformed Venus could keep the planet cool, and permeability to visible light could be regulated in a 24-hour cycle to create Earth-like โ€œdaysโ€ and โ€œnightsโ€. The night side of the planet should also have artificial days originating from 10,000 km mirrors in the Lagrange points 60 degrees before and after Venus in its orbit.

    Instead of shielding Venus with artificial rings which would disturb both satellite communication (the geostationary orbit is FAR from the planet) and space travel, I think โ€œLagrangian opticsโ€ is a far more cost efficient solution for both Mars and Venus

    XHTML:

    Instead of shielding Venus with artificial rings which would disturb both satellite communication (the geostationary orbit is FAR from the planet) and space travel, I think โ€œLagrangian

    Comment by pasterman — October 12, 2010 #

  64. Im beutifle. my name is harry canary in the middle of mary singin hey ho im a hary berry

    Comment by kingtut71.9london easy rock — October 12, 2010 #

  65. hey hairy nutians im nuty hary and i have hairy nuts!

    Comment by hairynuts — October 21, 2010 #

  66. you should try putting some animals on this planet!!like snakes and maybe try to grow plants

    Comment by Sydney — October 21, 2010 #

  67. the solution is simple. just grow old and die and your problems are gone :)

    Comment by brad — October 21, 2010 #

  68. ุจุณู… ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุงู„ุฑุญู…ู† ุงู„ุฑุญูŠู…
    ุงู† ุดุงุก ุณูˆู ู†ุจุฏุฃ ุฑุญู„ุชู†ุง
    ุญูˆู„ ุนุงู„ู… ุงู„ูุถุงุก ูˆู…ุง ูŠุฏูˆุฑ ุญูˆู„ู†ุง
    ู†ุจุฏุง ูู‰ ุงู…ุงู† ุงู„ู„ู‡
    ูˆุจุฏุงูŠู‡ ุฑุญู„ุชู†ุง ู‡ุชูƒูˆู† ุนู†
    vvvv
    vvv
    vv
    v
    ู†ุดุฃุฉ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ูˆู†ู‡ุงูŠุชู‡ ุŒ ูˆุฅุนุงุฏุฉ ุงู„ุฎู„ู‚ ู…ุฑุฉ ุฃุฎุฑู‰! …

    ุงู„ุฅู†ูุฌุงุฑ ุงู„ุนุธูŠู… ุงู„ุฐูŠ ุชูƒูˆู† ู…ู†ู‡ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุŒ ุชุฎู„ู‚ ุงู„ู†ุฌูˆู… ูˆุงู„ูƒูˆุงูƒุจ ูˆุงู„ู…ุฌุฑุงุช ู…ู† ุงู„ุฏุฎุงู† ุงู„ูƒูˆู†ูŠ ุŒ ุชุญุฏูŠุฏ ุนู…ุฑ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุŒ ุธุงู‡ุฑุฉ ุฅุชุณุงุน ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุŒ ู†ู‡ุงูŠุฉ ุงู„ูƒูˆู†.

    ู„ุงุญุธ ุงู„ุนู„ู…ุงุก ุธุงู‡ุฑุฉ ุฅุชุณุงุน ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุ› ูˆู…ู†ู‡ุง ุฃุณุชู†ุชุฌูˆุง ู†ุดุฃุฉ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุŒ ูˆุชูˆู‚ุนูˆุง ูƒูŠู ุชูƒูˆู† ู†ู‡ุงูŠุชู‡ ุŒ ูˆุฑุตุฏุช ูˆูƒุงู„ุฉ ุงู„ูุถุงุก ู†ุงุณุง ูˆุฌูˆุฏ ุจู‚ุงูŠุง ู„ู„ุฏุฎุงู† -ุงู„ู†ุงุดุฆ ุนู† ุงู„ุฅู†ูุฌุงุฑ- ุงู„ุฐูŠ ุชูƒูˆู†ุช ู…ู†ู‡ ุงู„ู†ุฌูˆู… ูˆุงู„ูƒูˆุงูƒุจ ุŒ ูˆู…ู† ุงู„ุฅุดุงุฑุงุช ุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู†ูŠุฉ ุชูˆุตู„ ุฏ/ุฒุบู„ูˆู„ ุงู„ู†ุฌุงุฑ ุฅู„ู‰ ุนูู…ู’ุฑ ุงู„ูƒูˆู†ุŒ ูˆุงู„ุฐูŠ ูŠุชุทุงุจู‚ ุชู‚ุฑูŠุจุงู‹ ู…ุน ู…ุง ุชูˆุตู„ุช ุฅู„ูŠู‡ ูˆูƒุงู„ุฉ ู†ุงุณุง ู…ุคุฎุฑุง ุจุงุณุชุฎุฏุงู… ู…ูƒูˆูƒ ูุถุงุฆูŠ ู…ุฒูˆุฏ ุจู…ุฌุณุงุช ู…ุชุทูˆุฑุฉ ุฌุฏุงู‹ ุŒ

    ูˆุฃุฎูŠุฑุงู‹ ู…ุงุฐุง ุณูŠุญุฏุซ ู„ู„ุณู…ุงูˆุงุช ูˆุงู„ุฃุฑุถ ููŠ ุงู„ู†ู‡ุงูŠุฉุŸ!.

    1- ุชูˆุณูŠุน ู†ุทุงู‚ ุงู„ูƒูˆู†

    1-1:ุฅุซุจุงุช ุฃู† ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ูŠุชูˆุณุน:-

    - ูƒุงู† ุงู„ุนุงู„ู… ูŠู†ุงุฏูŠ ุจุซุจุงุช ุงู„ูƒูˆู† โ€ุŒ ูˆุนุฏู… ุชุบูŠุฑู‡ ุŒ ูˆุธู„ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุงุนุชู‚ุงุฏ ุณุงุฆุฏุงู‹ ุญุชูŠ ุจุฏุงูŠุฉ ุงู„ู‚ุฑู† ุงู„ุนุดุฑูŠู† ุŒ ุญูŠู† ุฃุซุจุช ุนุงู„ู… ุงู„ููŠุฒูŠุงุก ุงู„ุฑูˆุณูŠ ุฃู„ูƒุณู†ุฏุฑ ูุฑูŠุฏู…ุงู† ูˆุนุงู„ู… ุงู„ูู„ูƒ ุงู„ุจู„ุฌูŠูƒูŠ ุฌูˆุฑุฌ ู„ูŠู…ุฑูŠุช ู†ุธุฑูŠุงู‹ ุฃู† ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ููŠ ุญุฑูƒุฉ ุฏุงุฆู…ุฉ ุŒ ูˆุฃู†ู‡ ุขุฎุฐ ููŠ ุงู„ุชูˆุณุน .

    - ูˆู‡ุฐู‡ ู‡ูŠ ุงู„ุญู‚ูŠู‚ุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุซุจุชุช ุฃูŠุถุง ู…ู† ุฎู„ุงู„ ุจูŠุงู†ุงุช ุงู„ุฑุตุฏ ููŠ ุนุงู… 1929ู… ุŒ ูˆุนู†ุฏู…ุง ู‚ุงู… ุนุงู„ู… ุงู„ูู„ูƒ ุงู„ุฃู…ูŠุฑูƒูŠ ุฅุฏูˆูŠู† ู‡ุงุจู„ ุจู…ุฑุงู‚ุจุฉ ุงู„ุณู…ุงุก ุนู† ุทุฑูŠู‚ ุงู„ุชู„ุณูƒูˆุจ ุ› ุงูƒุชุดู ุฃู† ุงู„ู†ุฌูˆู… ูˆุงู„ู…ุฌุฑุงุช ูƒุงู†ุชุง ุชุจุชุนุฏุงู† ุจุงุณุชู…ุฑุงุฑ ุนู†ุงโ€ ุŒโ€ ูˆุนู† ุจุนุถู‡ุง ุงู„ุจุนุถ ุจู…ุนุฏู„ุงุช ุชู‚ุชุฑุจ ู…ู† ุณุฑุนุฉ ุงู„ุถูˆุก -ุงู„ู…ู‚ุฏุฑุฉ ุจู†ุญูˆ ุซู„ุงุซู…ุงุฆุฉ ุฃู„ู ูƒูŠู„ูˆ ู…ุชุฑ ููŠ ุงู„ุซุงู†ูŠุฉโ€- ุŒ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ุฏู„ูŠู„ูŒ ุนู„ู‰ ุญู‚ูŠู‚ุฉ ุชูˆุณุน ุงู„ูƒูˆู†ุŒ ูˆุชุจุงุนุฏ ู…ุฌุฑุงุชู‡ ุŒโ€ ูˆู‚ุฏ ุฃูŠุฏุช ูƒู„ ู…ู†: ุงู„ู…ุนุงุฏู„ุงุช ุงู„ุฑูŠุงุถูŠุฉุŒ ูˆู‚ูˆุงู†ูŠู† ุงู„ููŠุฒูŠุงุก ุงู„ู†ุธุฑูŠุฉ ุงุณุชู†ุชุงุฌุงุช ุงู„ูู„ูƒูŠูŠู† ููŠ ุฐู„ูƒโ€.โ€

    - ุฃุซุงุฑุช ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู†ุชุงุฆุฌ ุฌุฏู„ุงู‹ ุทูˆูŠู„ุงู‹ ุญุชู‰ ุณู„ู… ุงู„ุนู„ู…ุงุก ุจุญู‚ูŠู‚ุชู‡ุงโ€ ุŒ ูˆู‚ุฏ ุณุจู‚ ุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู† ุงู„ูƒุฑูŠู… ุจุงู„ุฅุดุงุฑุฉ ุฅู„ู‰ ุชู„ูƒ ุงู„ุญู‚ูŠู‚ุฉ ู‚ุจู„ ุฃู„ู ูˆุฃุฑุจุนู…ุงุฆุฉ ุณู†ุฉ ุจู‚ูˆู„ ุงู„ุญู‚ โ€-ุชุจุงุฑูƒ ูˆุชุนุงู„ู‰โ€- :โ€(ูˆูŽุงู„ุณูŽู‘ู…ูŽุงุก ุจูŽู†ูŽูŠู’ู†ูŽุงู‡ูŽุง ุจูุฃูŽูŠู’ุฏู ูˆูŽุฅูู†ูŽู‘ุง ู„ูŽู…ููˆุณูุนููˆู†ูŽ) โ€(โ€ ุงู„ุฐุงุฑูŠุงุชโ€:47) โ€ุŒ ูˆูƒู„ู…ุฉ “ุงู„ุณู…ุงุก” ูƒู…ุง ุฌุงุกุช ููŠ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุขูŠุฉ ุชุณุชุฎุฏู… ููŠ ุฃู…ุงูƒู† ู…ุฎุชู„ูุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู† ุงู„ูƒุฑูŠู… ุŒ ูˆู‡ู†ุง ุงูŠุถุงู‹ ุจู…ุนู†ู‰:ุงู„ูุถุงุก ูˆุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุŒ ูู…ู† ุจู„ุงุบุฉ ุงู„ุขูŠุฉ ุฃู†ู‡ุง ู†ุฒู„ุช ุŒ ูˆุฃุซุจุชุช ุฃู† ุงู„ูƒูˆู† “ูŠุชูˆุณุน” ููŠ ูˆู‚ุช ูƒุงู† ููŠู‡ ุนู„ู… ุงู„ูู„ูƒ ู„ุง ูŠุฒุงู„ ุจุฏุงุฆูŠุงู‹ ุŒ ูˆุงู„ุนุงู„ู… ูƒู„ู‡ ูŠู†ุงุฏูŠ ุจุซุจุงุช ุงู„ูƒูˆู†โ€ ุŒ ูˆุนุฏู… ุชุบูŠุฑู‡ ุ› ูˆุฐู„ูƒ ู„ุฃู† ุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู† ุงู„ูƒุฑูŠู… ู‡ูˆ ูƒู„ุงู… ุงู„ู„ู‡ -ุงู„ุฎุงู„ู‚-ุŒ ูˆุญุงูƒู… ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ูƒู„ู‡.

    ู…ู†ุฐ ู„ุญุธุฉ ุงู„ุฅู†ูุฌุงุฑ ุงู„ุนุธูŠู… ุฅุชุณุน ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุจุณุฑุนุฉ ูƒุจูŠุฑุฉ
    (ูˆูŠุดุจู‡ู‡ุง ุงู„ุนู„ู…ุงุก ุจุณุทุญ ุงู„ุจุงู„ูˆู† ุงู„ู…ู†ููˆุฎ ูุงู„ู†ู‚ุงุท ุงู„ู…ูˆุฌูˆุฏุฉ ุนู„ู‰ ุณุทุญ ุงู„ุจุงู„ูˆู† ุชุจุชุนุฏ ุจุนุถู‡ุง ุนู† ุจุนุถ
    ูƒู„ู…ุง ุชู…ุฏุฏ ุงู„ุจุงู„ูˆู† ูˆู‡ูƒุฐุง ูุงู„ูƒูˆู† ูƒู„ู…ุง ุงุชุณุน ุฒุงุฏุช ุงู„ู…ุณุงูุงุช ุงู„ู…ูˆุฌูˆุฏุฉ ููŠู‡).

    2-1:ุฅุฎุชูŠุงุฑ ู…ุนุฏู„ ุฅุชุณุงุน ุงู„ูƒูˆู†:-

    - ูˆุงู„ู…ุนุฏู„ ุงู„ู…ุชูˆุณุท ู„ุนู…ู„ูŠุฉ ุงุชุณุงุน ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ู„ุงุจุฏ ูˆุฃู†ู‡ ู‚ุฏ ุงุฎุชูŠุฑ ุจุญูƒู…ุฉ ุจุงู„ุบุฉ ุ› ู„ุฃู† ู…ุนุฏู„ู‡ ุงู„ุญุงู„ูŠ ู„ู… ูŠุชุฌุงูˆุฒ ุจุนุฏ ุงู„ุญุฏ ุงู„ุญุฑุฌ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูŠู…ูƒู† ุฃู† ูŠุคุฏูŠ ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู†ู‡ูŠุงุฑู‡ ูˆุชูƒุฏุณู‡ ุนู„ูŠ ุฐุงุชู‡ ุ›โ€ ู…ู…ุง ูŠุคูƒุฏ ุฃู†ู‡ ู…ุญูƒูˆู… ุจุถูˆุงุจุท ุจุงู„ุบุฉ ุงู„ุฏู‚ุฉ ูˆุงู„ุฅุญูƒุงู…โ€ ุŒโ€ ูˆู„ุง ูŠุฒุงู„ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุงู„ู…ูุฏุฑูŽูƒ ู…ุณุชู…ุฑุงู‹ ููŠ ุชูˆุณุนู‡ ู…ู†ุฐ ู†ุดุฃุชู‡ โ€ุŒ ูˆุฐู„ูƒ ุจู†ูุณ ู…ุนุฏู„ ุงู„ุชูˆุณุน ุงู„ุญุฑุฌโ€ ุŒโ€ ูˆู„ูˆ ุชุฌุงูˆุฒู‡ ุจุฌุฒุก ู…ู† ู…ุฆุงุช ุงู„ุจู„ุงูŠูŠู† ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ุนุฏู„ ุงู„ุญุงู„ูŠ ู„ู„ุชูˆุณุน ุ› ู„ุงู†ู‡ุงุฑ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุนู„ูŠ ุงู„ููˆุฑโ€ ุŒ ูุณุจุญุงู† ุงู„ุฐูŠ ุญูุธู‡ ู…ู† ุงู„ุงู†ู‡ูŠุงุฑโ€..!!โ€!

    โ€ - ูˆู„ู… ุชุชู…ูƒู† ู„ู„ู†ุธุฑูŠุฉ ุงู„ู†ุณุจูŠุฉ ู…ู† ุชูุณูŠุฑ ุฐู„ูƒ ุŒ ูˆู„ุง ูŠู…ูƒู† ู„ุนุงู‚ู„ ุชุตูˆุฑ ู…ุตุฏุฑุงู‹ ู„ุฎู„ู‚ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุจู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ู‚ุฏุฑ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฅุญูƒุงู… ุบูŠุฑ ูƒูˆู†ู‡ ุฃู…ุฑุงู‹ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฎุงู„ู‚ โ€-โ€ ุณุจุญุงู†ู‡ ูˆุชุนุงู„ู‰โ€- ุงู„ุฐูŠ ู‚ุงู„:
    ( ุฅูู†ูŽู‘ู…ูŽุง ุฃูŽู…ู’ุฑูู‡ู ุฅูุฐูŽุง ุฃูŽุฑูŽุงุฏูŽ ุดูŽูŠู’ุฆู‹ุง ุฃูŽู†ู’ ูŠูŽู‚ููˆู„ูŽ ู„ูŽู‡ู ูƒูู†ู’ ููŽูŠูŽูƒููˆู† )โ€ (โ€ ูŠุณโ€ :82 )โ€.

    2- ู†ุดุฃุฉ ุงู„ูƒูˆู†

    1-2:ุฅุณุชู†ุชุงุฌ ูƒูŠู ู†ุดุฃ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ู…ู† ุฅุชุณุงุนู‡:-

    - ู…ู† ุซูŽู…ูŽู‘ ู†ุงุฏูŠ ูƒู„ ู…ู† ุนู„ู…ุงุก ุงู„ูู„ูƒโ€ ุŒโ€ ูˆุงู„ููŠุฒูŠุงุก -ุงู„ูู„ูƒูŠุฉ ูˆุงู„ู†ุธุฑูŠุฉ- :ุจุฃู†ู†ุง ุฅุฐุง ุนุฏู†ุง ุจู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุงุชุณุงุน ุงู„ูƒูˆู†ูŠ ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ูˆุฑุงุก ู…ุน ุงู„ุฒู…ู† ุ› ูู„ุงุจุฏ ุฃู† ุชู„ุชู‚ูŠ ูƒู„ ุตูˆุฑ ุงู„ู…ุงุฏุฉ ูˆ ุงู„ุทุงู‚ุฉ ุงู„ู…ูˆุฌูˆุฏุฉ ููŠ ุงู„ูƒูˆู†โ€ -โ€ุงู„ู…ุฏุฑูƒ ู…ู†ู‡ุง ูˆุบูŠุฑ ุงู„ู…ุฏุฑูƒโ€- ุŒ ูˆุชุชูƒุฏุณ ุนู„ูŠ ุจุนุถู‡ุง ุงู„ุจุนุถ ููŠ ุฌุฑู… ุงุจุชุฏุงุฆูŠ ูˆุงุญุฏ ูŠุชู†ุงู‡ู‰ ููŠ ุงู„ุตุบุฑ ุฅู„ู‰ ู…ุง ูŠู‚ุฑุจ ุงู„ุตูุฑ ุฃูˆ ุงู„ุนุฏู… โ€ุŒโ€
    ูˆุชู†ูƒู…ุด ููŠ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู†ู‚ุทุฉ ุฃุจุนุงุฏ ูƒู„ ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ูƒุงู† ุŒ ูˆุงู„ุฒู…ุงู† ุญุชู‰ ุชุชู„ุงุดูŠ ููŠ ุธุงู‡ุฑุฉ ูŠุณู…ูŠู‡ุง ุงู„ุนู„ู…ุงุก :
    “ุฌูˆู‡ุฑ ู…ุฏู…ุฌ ู„ู„ุบุงูŠุฉ” ุŒ ูˆูŠุณู…ูŠู‡ุง ุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู† ุงู„ูƒุฑูŠู… ุจุงุณู… : โ€”ุงู„ุฑุชู‚โ€”.โ€

    - ูˆู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุฌุฑู… ุงู„ุงุจุชุฏุงุฆูŠ ูƒุงู† ููŠ ุญุงู„ุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ูƒุซุงูุฉ ุŒ ูˆุงู„ุญุฑุงุฑุฉ ุชุชูˆู‚ู ุนู†ุฏู‡ู…ุง ูƒู„ ุงู„ู‚ูˆุงู†ูŠู† ุงู„ููŠุฒูŠุงุฆูŠุฉ ุงู„ู…ุนุฑูˆูุฉ ุŒ ูˆู„ุง ูŠูƒุงุฏ ุงู„ุนู‚ู„ ุงู„ุจุดุฑูŠ ุฃู† ูŠุชุตูˆุฑู‡ู…ุงโ€ ุŒโ€ ูุงู†ูุฌุฑ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุฌุฑู… ุงู„ุฃูˆู„ูŠ ุจุฃู…ุฑ ุงู„ู„ู‡ โ€- โ€ุชุนุงู„ู‰โ€- ุ› ูˆู†ุชุฌ ุนู†ู‡ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ูƒู„ู‡ ู…ู†ุฐ ุฎู…ุณุฉ ุนุดุฑ ู…ู„ูŠุงุฑ ุณู†ุฉ ุŒโ€ ููŠ ุธุงู‡ุฑุฉ ูŠุณู…ูŠู‡ุง ุงู„ุนู„ู…ุงุก ุนู…ู„ูŠุฉ: “ุงู„ุงู†ูุฌุงุฑ ุงู„ูƒูˆู†ูŠ ุงู„ุนุธูŠู…” ุŒ ูˆูŠุณู…ูŠู‡ุง ุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู† ุงู„ูƒุฑูŠู… ุจุงุณู…: “ุงู„ูุชู‚” ุŒ ูˆุงู„ุฃูˆุณุงุท ุงู„ุนู„ู…ูŠุฉ ุงู„ุญุฏูŠุซุฉ ู…ุชูู‚ุฉ ุนู„ู‰ ุฃู† ุงู„ุงู†ูุฌุงุฑ ุงู„ูƒุจูŠุฑ ู‡ูˆ ุงู„ูˆุญูŠุฏ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ุดุฑุญ ูƒูŠููŠุฉ ู†ุดุฃุฉ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุŒ ูˆู‚ุฏ ุณุจู‚ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ูƒู„ ุงู„ู…ุนุงุฑู ุงู„ุฅู†ุณุงู†ูŠุฉ ุจุงู„ุฅุดุงุฑุฉ ุฅู„ู‰ ุฐู„ูƒ ุงู„ุญุฏุซ ุงู„ูƒูˆู†ูŠ ุงู„ุนุธูŠู… ู…ู† ู‚ุจู„ ุฃู„ู ูˆุฃุฑุจุนู…ุงุฆุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ุณู†ูŠู† ุจู‚ูˆู„ ุงู„ุญู‚ โ€-โ€ุชุจุงุฑูƒ ูˆุชุนุงู„ู‰โ€- :
    (ุฃูŽูˆูŽู„ูŽู…ู’ ูŠูŽุฑูŽ ุงู„ูŽู‘ุฐููŠู†ูŽ ูƒูŽููŽุฑููˆุง ุฃูŽู†ูŽู‘ ุงู„ุณูŽู‘ู…ูŽุงูˆูŽุงุชู ูˆูŽุงู„ู’ุฃูŽุฑู’ุถูŽ ูƒูŽุงู†ูŽุชูŽุง ุฑูŽุชู’ู‚ู‹ุง ููŽููŽุชูŽู‚ู’ู†ูŽุงู‡ูู…ูŽุง ูˆูŽุฌูŽุนูŽู„ู’ู†ูŽุง ู…ูู†ูŽ ุงู„ู’ู…ูŽุงุก ูƒูู„ูŽู‘ ุดูŽูŠู’ุกู ุญูŽูŠูู‘ ุฃูŽููŽู„ูŽุง ูŠูุคู’ู…ูู†ููˆู†ูŽ) (โ€ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุกโ€:30)โ€.

    ุทุจู‚ุงู‹ ู„ู†ุธุฑูŠุฉ ุงู„ุฅู†ูุฌุงุฑ ุงู„ุนุธูŠู…: ูƒู„ ุดู‰ุก ุจุฏุฃ ู…ู† ุฅู†ูุฌุงุฑ ู†ู‚ุทุฉ ุฐุงุช ูƒุซุงูุฉ ู„ุงู†ู‡ุงุฆูŠุฉ ูˆุญุฌู… ูŠุณุงูˆู‰ ุตูุฑ
    ุŒ ูˆุจู…ุฑูˆุฑ ุงู„ูˆู‚ุช ุฅุชุณุนุช ุงู„ู…ุณุงูุงุช ุจูŠู† ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุฃุฌุณุงู…

    2-2:ุงู„ุชุนู„ูŠู‚ ุงู„ุนู„ู…ูŠ :-
    - ููŠ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุขูŠุฉ ุŒ ู†ู‚ุฑุฃ ุณุคุงู„ ู…ูˆุฌู‡ ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ู…ูƒุฐุจูŠู† ุจุฎุตูˆุต ุจุฏุก ุฎู„ู‚ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุŒ ูˆุงู„ุณุคุงู„ ู‡ูˆ : ู‡ู„ ูŠู…ูƒู† ู„ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุจุฏุงูŠุฉ ุจุนุฏ ุฃู† ุฑุฃูˆุง ูˆ ู„ุงุญุธูˆุง- ุฃู† ุชุชู… ูู‚ุท ุตุฏูุฉ ุŸ!
    - ูุญุงูˆู„ูˆุง ุดุฑุญ ุชูุฑุฏ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ู…ู† ุฎู„ุงู„ ุนุจุงุฑุฉ “ุฌูˆู‡ุฑ ู…ุฏู…ุฌ ู„ู„ุบุงูŠุฉ”ุŒ ูˆ”ู„ุญุธุงุช ุงู„ุงู†ูุฌุงุฑ ุงู„ุนุธูŠู…”ุŒ
    ูˆ”ุชุจุฑูŠุฏ ู…ูุงุฌุฆ” ุŒูˆู‡ู„ู… ุฌุฑุงุŒ ูˆุงู„ู„ู‡ ู„ุฎุต ูƒู„ ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุงุช -ุงู„ุชู‰ ุญุงูˆู„ ุฃู† ูŠุตู„ ุฅู„ูŠู‡ุง ุงู„ู…ูƒุฐุจูˆู† ูˆุนุฌุฒูˆุง-
    ููŠ ูƒู„ู…ุชูŠู† ู‡ู…ุง:”ุฑุชู‚” ูˆ”ูุชู‚”.
    - ููˆุตู ุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู† ู…ุง ุชูˆุตู„ูˆุง ุฅู„ูŠู‡ -ูˆู‡ูˆ ุฃู† ูƒู„ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุฎู„ู‚ ุจุฏุฃ ู…ู† ุฃุตู„ ูˆุงุญุฏ- ู…ู† ุฎู„ุงู„ ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุฉ ุงู„ุนุฑุจูŠุฉ “ุฑุชู‚ุง” ุŒ ูุฅู† ุฐู„ูƒ ูŠุนู†ูŠ - ุจุงู„ู„ุบุฉ ุงู„ุนุฑุจูŠุฉ- ู‚ุทุนุฉ ู…ุชุตู„ุฉ ูˆ ู…ุถุบูˆุทุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฃู„ูŠุงู ุงู„ู…ู†ุณูˆุฌุฉ ุฃูˆ ุงู„ู‚ู…ุงุด.
    - ูˆู„ูƒู† ุฃูˆู„ุฆูƒ ุงู„ุนู„ู…ุงุก ุงู„ู…ุงุฏูŠูŠู† ุŒ ู‚ุฏ ุถู„ูˆุง ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ุชุตูˆุฑุง ุฃู† ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู…ุงุฏุฉ ุชุญูˆู„ุช ุฃูˆ ุงู†ุชุดุฑุช ุฅู„ู‰ ู…ุซู„ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ู†ุธุงู… ุงู„ุฑุงุฆุน ู…ู† ุชู„ู‚ุงุก ู†ูุณู‡ุง ุŒ ููŠุฌุจ ุฃู† ูŠุนุชุฑููˆุง ุจุฃู† ูƒู„ ู‡ุฐุง ู‚ุงู…ุช ุจู‡ ุณู„ุทุฉ ุงู„ุฎุงู„ู‚ุŒ ูˆุฅุฑุงุฏุชู‡ ุ›
    ุญุชู‰ ูŠูƒูˆู†ูˆุง ุนู„ู…ูŠูŠู† ุฃูˆ ู…ู†ุทู‚ูŠูŠู† ููŠ ุงุณุชู†ุชุงุฌุงุชู‡ู….
    - ูˆูŠุตู ุงู„ุฎุงู„ู‚ ุงู†ุชุดุงุฑ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู…ุงุฏุฉ ุงู„ู…ุถุบูˆุทุฉ ุจูƒู„ู…ุฉ “ูุชู‚ู†ุงู‡ู…ุง” ุŒ ูˆู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุฉ ุชุนู†ูŠ ุฃู† ุงู„ู„ู‡ ูุตู„ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู…ุงุฏุฉ (ุงู„ุฑุชู‚) ุจุฅุฑุงุฏุชู‡ ุฅู„ู‰ ุฃู„ูŠุงู ู…ุชุฌุงู†ุณุฉ ุŒ ุชูุดูƒู„ ุงู„ุฃุฑุถ ูˆุงู„ุณู…ุงูˆุงุช.
    - ูˆู†ุญู† ู†ุฑู‰ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุชุฌุงู†ุณ ููŠ ุงู„ุฃู„ูŠุงู ุŒ ุฃูˆ ุงู„ู…ูƒูˆู†ุงุช ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชู…ู„ุฃ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุงู„ู…ูู†ุธูŽู… : ุญูŠุซ ู†ุฌุฏ ุฃู† ู…ูˆุงุฏ ุงู„ุดู…ุณ ุชูุดุงุจู‡ ุงู„ู…ูˆุงุฏ ุงู„ุฃุฎุฑู‰ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุฃุฑุถ ุŒ ูˆุนู„ูŠ ุณุทุญ ุงู„ู‚ู…ุฑ ุŒ ูˆุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ูƒูˆุงูƒุจ ุงู„ุฃุฎุฑู‰ ุŒ ูˆุนู„ู‰ ุฃูŠ ู†ุฌู…ุฉ ุฃุฎุฑู‰ ุŒ ูˆุฌู…ูŠุน ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู…ูˆุงุฏ ุดููƒู„ุช ุจูˆุงุณุทุฉ ุฐุฑุงุช ู…ุชุดุงุจู‡ุฉ ููŠ ุงู„ุชุฑูƒูŠุจ.
    - ูˆู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ู†ุธุงู… ุงู„ู…ุชุฌุงู†ุณ ุจุฏุฃ ู…ู†ุฐ ุงู„ู„ุญุธุฉ ุงู„ุฃูˆู„ู‰ ู„ู„ุฎู„ู‚ ุ› ู„ุฃู† ู…ุซู„ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุฎู„ู‚ ุชู… ุจูˆุงุณุทุฉ ุฎุงู„ู‚ ูˆุงุญุฏ ุญู‚ู‚ ูˆุญุฏุงู†ูŠุชู‡.
    -ูˆู…ู† ุซู…ูŽู‘ ูุงู„ุชุนุจูŠุฑ ุจ”ุฑุชู‚” ุจูˆุตูู‡ุง ู‚ุทุนุฉ ู‚ู…ุงุด ู…ูŽู†ุณููˆุฌ ุฃูุถู„ ุจูƒุซูŠุฑ ู…ู† ุงู„ุชุนุจูŠุฑ ุจ”ุจุฏุก ู…ู† ู…ุถุบูˆุท ุงู„ุฌูˆู‡ุฑ” ุŒ ูˆูƒู„ู…ุฉ “ูุชู‚ู†ุงู‡ู…ุง” ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชุนู†ูŠ ุชุดูƒูŠู„ ุงู„ุณู…ุงูˆุงุช ูˆุงู„ุฃุฑุถ ุนู† ุทุฑูŠู‚ ู†ุดุฑ ุฃู„ูŠุงู ุงู„ุฑุชู‚ ุจุฅุฑุงุฏุฉ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุŒ ุฃูุถู„ ู…ู† ุงู„ุชุนุจูŠุฑ ุจ”ุงู„ุงู†ูุฌุงุฑ ุงู„ุนุธูŠู…” ุ› ู„ุฐุง ูุฅู†ู‡ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุจุงุญุซูŠู† ุชุฑูƒ ุงู„ุงูุชุฑุงุถุงุช ุงู„ุบูŠุฑ ู…ู†ุทู‚ูŠุฉ ู…ู† ุชูุฌูŠุฑ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ู„ู†ูุณู‡ ุจุทุฑูŠู‚ุฉ ุญูƒูŠู…ุฉ ุŒ ูˆูŠุฌุจ ุฃู† ูŠุนุชุฑููˆุง ุจุตุฏู‚ ูƒู„ู…ุงุช ุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู† ุงู„ูƒุฑูŠู… ุ› ูู…ุซู„ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุงุนุชุฑุงู ุŒ ุณูŠู‚ูˆุฏู‡ู… ุฅู„ู‰ ุฃู† ูŠูƒูˆู†ูˆุง ู…ุคู…ู†ูŠู† ุญู‚ูŠู‚ูŠูŠู† ุจู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุฏูŠู† ุงู„ุญู‚ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ุฌุงุก ู„ุชุตุญูŠุญ ุฌู…ูŠุน ุงู„ู…ุนุชู‚ุฏุงุช ุงู„ุบุงู…ุถุฉ ุŒ ูˆุงู„ุบูŠุฑ ู…ู†ุทู‚ูŠุฉ.

    3-2:ุชูƒูˆู† ุงู„ุฏุฎู€ุงู† :-

    - ูˆุชุดูŠุฑ ุฏุฑุงุณุงุช ุงู„ููŠุฒูŠุงุก ุงู„ู†ุธุฑูŠุฉ ููŠ ุฃูˆุงุฎุฑ ุงู„ู‚ุฑู† ุงู„ุนุดุฑูŠู† ุฅู„ู‰ ุฃู† ุฌูุฑู…ุงู‹ ุจู…ูˆุงุตูุงุช ุงู„ุฌูุฑู… ุงู„ุงุจุชุฏุงุฆูŠ ู„ู„ูƒูˆู† ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ุงู†ูุฌุฑุ› ุชุญูˆู„ ุฅู„ู‰ ูƒุฑุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฅุดุนุงุน ูˆุงู„ุฌุณูŠู…ุงุช ุงู„ุฃูˆู„ูŠุฉ ุฃุฎุฐุช ููŠ ุงู„ุชู…ุฏุฏ ูˆุงู„ุชุจุฑุฏ ุจุณุฑุนุงุช ูุงุฆู‚ุฉ ุญุชู‰ ุชุญูˆู„ุช ุฅู„ู‰ ุบู„ุงู„ุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฏุฎุงู† ุŒ ูˆููŠ ุงู„ุซุงู…ู† ู…ู† ู†ูˆูู…ุจุฑ ุณู†ุฉ โ€1989โ€ู… ุฃุทู„ู‚ุช ูˆูƒุงู„ุฉ ุงู„ูุถุงุก ู†ุงุณุงโ€ ู…ุฑูƒุจุฉ ูุถุงุฆูŠุฉ ุจุงุณู… “ู…ูƒุชุดู ุงู„ุฎู„ููŠุฉ ุงู„ุฅุดุนุงุนูŠุฉ ู„ู„ูƒูˆู†” -ูˆุฐู„ูƒ ููŠ ู…ุฏุงุฑ ุญูˆู„ ุงู„ุฃุฑุถ ุนู„ูŠ ุงุฑุชูุงุน ุณุชู…ุงุฆุฉ ูƒูŠู„ูˆู…ุชุฑ ู…ู† ู…ุณุชูˆูŠ ุณุทุญ ุงู„ุจุญุฑโ€- ุ› ู„ู‚ูŠุงุณ ุฏุฑุฌุฉ ุญุฑุงุฑุฉ ุงู„ุฎู„ููŠุฉ ุงู„ุฅุดุนุงุนูŠุฉ ู„ู„ูƒูˆู†โ€ ุŒ โ€ูˆู‚ูŠุงุณ ูƒู„ุงู‹ ู…ู†: ุงู„ูƒุซุงูุฉ ุงู„ู…ุงุฏูŠุฉ ูˆุงู„ุถูˆุฆูŠุฉ ุŒ ูˆุงู„ู…ูˆุฌุงุช ุงู„ุฏู‚ูŠู‚ุฉ ููŠ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุงู„ู…ุฏุฑูƒโ€ ุŒโ€ ุจุนูŠุฏู‹ุง ุนู† ุชุฃุซูŠุฑ ุงู„ุณุญุจ ูˆุงู„ู…ู„ูˆุซุงุช ููŠ ุงู„ู†ุทู‚ ุงู„ุฏู†ูŠุง ู…ู† ุงู„ุบู„ุงู ุงู„ุบุงุฒูŠ ู„ู„ุฃุฑุถโ€ ุŒโ€ ูˆู‚ุงู… ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ู‚ู…ุฑ ุงู„ุตู†ุงุนูŠ ุงู„ู…ูุณุชูƒุดู ุจุฅุฑุณุงู„ ู‚ุฏุฑ ู‡ุงุฆู„ ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ุนู„ูˆู…ุงุชุŒ ูˆู…ู„ุงูŠูŠู† ุงู„ุตูˆุฑ ู„ุขุซุงุฑ ุงู„ุฏุฎุงู† ุงู„ูƒูˆู†ูŠ ุงู„ุฃูˆู„ุŒ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ู†ุชุฌ ุนู† ุนู…ู„ูŠุฉ ุงู„ุงู†ูุฌุงุฑ ุงู„ุนุธูŠู… ู„ู„ูƒูˆู† ุŒ ูˆุฃุซุจุชุช ุชู„ูƒ ุงู„ุตูˆุฑ ุฃู† ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุฏุฎุงู† ููŠ ุญุงู„ุฉ ู…ุนุชู…ุฉ ุชู…ุงู…ู‹ุง ุชู…ุซู„ ุญุงู„ุฉ ุงู„ุฅุธู„ุงู… ุงู„ุชูŠ ุณุงุฏุช ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ููŠ ู…ุฑุงุญู„ู‡ ุงู„ุฃูˆู„ู‰ ู‚ุจู„ ุฎู„ู‚ ุงู„ุฃุฑุถ ูˆุงู„ุณู…ุงูˆุงุชโ€ ุŒ ูุณุจุญุงู† ุงู„ุฐูŠ ุฃู†ุฒู„ ู…ู† ู‚ุจู„ ุฃู„ู ูˆุฃุฑุจุนู…ุงุฆุฉ ุณู†ุฉ ููŠ ุซู†ุงูŠุง ูƒุชุงุจู‡ โ€:
    (ู‚ูู„ู’ ุฃูŽุฆูู†ูŽู‘ูƒูู…ู’ ู„ูŽุชูŽูƒู’ููุฑููˆู†ูŽ ุจูุงู„ูŽู‘ุฐููŠ ุฎูŽู„ูŽู‚ูŽ ุงู„ู’ุฃูŽุฑู’ุถูŽ ูููŠ ูŠูŽูˆู’ู…ูŽูŠู’ู†ู ูˆูŽุชูŽุฌู’ุนูŽู„ููˆู†ูŽ ู„ูŽู‡ู ุฃูŽู†ุฏูŽุงุฏู‹ุง ุฐูŽู„ููƒูŽ ุฑูŽุจูู‘ ุงู„ู’ุนูŽุงู„ูŽู…ููŠู†ูŽ … ูˆูŽุฌูŽุนูŽู„ูŽ ูููŠู‡ูŽุง ุฑูŽูˆูŽุงุณููŠูŽ ู…ูู† ููŽูˆู’ู‚ูู‡ูŽุง ูˆูŽุจูŽุงุฑูŽูƒูŽ ูููŠู‡ูŽุง ูˆูŽู‚ูŽุฏูŽู‘ุฑูŽ ูููŠู‡ูŽุง ุฃูŽู‚ู’ูˆูŽุงุชูŽู‡ูŽุง ูููŠ ุฃูŽุฑู’ุจูŽุนูŽุฉู ุฃูŽูŠูŽู‘ุงู…ู ุณูŽูˆูŽุงุก ู„ูู‘ู„ุณูŽู‘ุงุฆูู„ููŠู†ูŽ… ุซูู…ูŽู‘ ุงุณู’ุชูŽูˆูŽู‰ ุฅูู„ูŽู‰ ุงู„ุณูŽู‘ู…ูŽุงุก ูˆูŽู‡ููŠูŽ ุฏูุฎูŽุงู†ูŒ ููŽู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽ ู„ูŽู‡ูŽุง ูˆูŽู„ูู„ู’ุฃูŽุฑู’ุถู ุงูุฆู’ุชููŠูŽุง ุทูŽูˆู’ุนู‹ุง ุฃูŽูˆู’ ูƒูŽุฑู’ู‡ู‹ุง ู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽุชูŽุง ุฃูŽุชูŽูŠู’ู†ูŽุง ุทูŽุงุฆูุนููŠู†ูŽ) โ€(โ€ูุตู„ุชโ€:

    4-2:ุชูƒูˆู† ุงู„ู†ุฌูˆู… ุงู„ู…ู†ุชุฌุฉ ู„ู„ุถูˆุก ูˆุงู„ุญุฑุงุฑุฉ:-

    - ุชุญูˆู„ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุฅู„ู‰ ุบู„ุงู„ุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฏุฎุงู† ุงู„ู…ูƒูˆูŽู‘ู† ู…ู† ุงู„ููˆุชูˆู†ุงุช ูˆุงู„ุฅู„ูƒุชุฑูˆู†ุงุช ูˆุงู„ู†ูŠูˆุชุฑูŠู†ูˆุงุช ูˆุฃุถุฏุงุฏ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุฌุณูŠู…ุงุช ู…ุน ู‚ู„ูŠู„ ู…ู† ุงู„ุจุฑูˆุชูˆู†ุงุช ุŒูˆุงู„ู†ูŠูˆุชุฑูˆู†ุงุช ุงู„ุชูŠ ูŠู…ูƒู† ุฃู† ุชูˆุฌุฏ ููŠ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุนู„ูŠ ู‡ูŠุฆุฉ ู…ุง ูŠุณู…ูŠ ุจุงุณู… “ุงู„ู…ุงุฏุฉ ุงู„ุฏุงูƒู†ุฉ”. - ูˆู„ูˆู„ุง ุงุณุชู…ุฑุงุฑ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ููŠ ุงู„ุชูˆุณุน ูˆุงู„ุชุจุฑุฏ ุจู…ุนุฏู„ุงุช ู…ู†ุถุจุทุฉ ุจุฏู‚ุฉ ูุงุฆู‚ุฉ ุ› ู„ุฃูู†ุช: ุงู„ุฌุณูŠู…ุงุช ุงู„ุฃูˆู„ูŠุฉ ู„ู„ู…ุงุฏุฉ ูˆุฃุถุฏุงุฏู‡ุง ุจุนุถู‡ุง ุจุนุถู‹ุงโ€ ุŒโ€ ูˆุงู†ุชู‡ูŠ ุงู„ูƒูˆู†โ€ ุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู†ู‡ ุญูููุธ ุจุญููุธ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ุฃุชู‚ู† ูƒู„ ุดูŠุก ุฎู„ู‚ู‡ โ€ุŒ ูˆูŠู†ุงุฏูŠ ุงู„ุขู† ุฌูˆุซ ุจุฃู† ุงู„ุชู…ุฏุฏ ุนู†ุฏ ุจุฏุก ุงู„ุงู†ูุฌุงุฑ ุงู„ุนุธูŠู… ูƒุงู† ุจู…ุนุฏู„ุงุช ูุงุฆู‚ุฉ ุงู„ุชุตูˆุฑ ุฃุฏุช ุฅู„ู‰ ุฒูŠุงุฏุฉ ู‚ุทุฑ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุจู…ุนุฏู„ : โ€2910โ€ ู…ุฑุฉ
    ููŠ ุฌุฒุก ู…ู† ุงู„ุซุงู†ูŠุฉ โ€ุŒโ€ ูˆุชุดูŠุฑ ุญุณุงุจุงุช ุงู„ููŠุฒูŠุงุก ุงู„ู†ุธุฑูŠุฉ ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ุงุณุชู…ุฑุงุฑ ููŠ ุงู†ุฎูุงุถ ุฏุฑุฌุฉ ุญุฑุงุฑุฉ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุฅู„ู‰ ุจู„ูŠูˆู†โ€(โ€ุฃู„ู ู…ู„ูŠูˆู†โ€)โ€ ุฏุฑุฌุฉ ู…ุทู„ู‚ุฉ ุจุนุฏ ุฐู„ูƒ ุจู‚ู„ูŠู„โ€ ุŒโ€ ูˆุนู†ุฏ ุชู„ูƒ ุงู„ุฏุฑุฌุฉ ุงุชุญุฏุช ุงู„ุจุฑูˆุชูˆู†ุงุช ูˆุงู„ู†ูŠูˆุชุฑูˆู†ุงุช ู„ุชูƒูˆูŠู† :
    ู†ูˆูŠ ุฐุฑุงุช ุงู„ุฅูŠุฏุฑูˆุฌูŠู† ุงู„ุซู‚ูŠู„(ุงู„ุฏูŠูˆุชุฑูŠูˆู…) ุงู„ุชูŠ ุฌุฒุก ู…ู†ู‡ุง ุชุญู„ู„ ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ุฅูŠุฏุฑูˆุฌูŠู† ุŒ ูˆุงู„ุขุฎุฑ ุงุชุญุฏ ู…ุน ู…ุฒูŠุฏ ู…ู† ุงู„ุจุฑูˆุชูˆู†ุงุช ูˆุงู„ู†ูŠูˆุชุฑูˆู†ุงุช ุ› ู„ุชูƒูˆู† ู†ูˆูŠ ุฐุฑุงุช ุงู„ู‡ูŠู„ูŠูˆู…โ€ ูˆุงู„ู‚ู„ูŠู„ ู…ู† ู†ูˆู‰ ุฐุฑุงุช ุนู†ุงุตุฑ ุฃุนู„ู‰ ู…ุซู„ :
    ู†ูˆู‰ ุฐุฑุงุช ุงู„ู„ูŠุซูŠูˆู… ูˆู†ูˆู‰ ุฐุฑุงุช ุงู„ุจุฑูŠู„ูŠูˆู… โ€ุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† ุจู‚ูŠุช ุงู„ู†ุณุจุฉ ุงู„ุบุงู„ุจุฉ ู„ู†ูˆู‰ ุฐุฑุงุช ุบุงุฒูŠ ุงู„ุฃูŠุฏุฑูˆุฌูŠู† ูˆุงู„ู‡ูŠู„ูŠูˆู…โ€ .

    - ูˆุชุดูŠุฑ ุงู„ุญุณุงุจุงุช ุงู„ู†ุธุฑูŠุฉ ุฅู„ู‰ ุฃู†ู‡ ุจุนุฏ ุฐู„ูƒ ุจู‚ู„ูŠู„ ุชูˆู‚ู ุฅู†ุชุงุฌ ุงู„ู‡ูŠู„ูŠูˆู… ูˆุงู„ุนู†ุงุตุฑ ุงู„ุชุงู„ูŠุฉ ู„ู‡ ุŒโ€ ูˆุงุณุชู…ุฑ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ููŠ ุงู„ุงุชุณุงุน ูˆุงู„ุชุจุฑุฏ ู„ูุชุฑุฉ ุฒู…ู†ูŠุฉ ุทูˆูŠู„ุฉ ุŒโ€ ูˆุงู†ุฎูุถุช ุฏุฑุฌุฉ ุญุฑุงุฑุฉ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุฅู„ู‰ ุขู„ุงู ู‚ู„ูŠู„ุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฏุฑุฌุงุช ุงู„ู…ุทู„ู‚ุฉ ุญูŠู† ุจุฏุฃุช ุฐุฑุงุช ุงู„ุนู†ุงุตุฑ ุจุงู„ุชุฌู…ุน ุŒ ูˆุจุฏุฃ ุงู„ุฏุฎุงู† ุงู„ูƒูˆู†ูŠ ููŠ ุงู„ุชูƒุฏุณ ุนู„ูŠ ู‡ูŠุฆุฉ ุฃุนุฏุงุฏ ู…ู† ุงู„ุณุฏู… ุงู„ูƒูˆู†ูŠุฉ ุงู„ู‡ุงุฆู„ุฉโ€.โ€
    - ูˆู…ุน ุงุณุชู…ุฑุงุฑ ุนู…ู„ูŠุฉ ุงู„ุงุชุณุงุน ูˆุงู„ุชุจุฑุฏ ููŠ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุŒ ุจุฏุฃุช ุฃุฌุฒุงุก ู…ู† ุชู„ูƒ ุงู„ุณุฏู… ููŠ ุงู„ุชูƒุซู ุนู„ูŠ ุฐุงุชู‡ุง ุจูุนู„ ุงู„ุฌุงุฐุจูŠุฉ ูˆุจุงู„ุฏูˆุฑุงู† ุญูˆู„ ู†ูุณู‡ุง ุจุณุฑุนุงุช ู…ุชุฒุงูŠุฏุฉ ุจุงู„ุชุฏุฑูŠุฌ ุ› ุญุชูŠ ุชุฎู„ู‚ุช ุจุฏุงุฎู„ู‡ุง ูƒุชู„ ู…ู† ุงู„ุบุงุฒุงุช ุงู„ู…ุชูƒุซูุฉโ€ ุŒโ€

    ูˆู…ุน ุงุณุชู…ุฑุงุฑ ุฏูˆุฑุงู† ุชู„ูƒ ุงู„ูƒุชู„ ุงู„ูƒุซูŠูุฉ ููŠ ุฏุงุฎู„ ุงู„ุณุฏู… ุ› ุจุฏุฃุช ูƒู…ูŠุงุช ู…ู† ุบุงุฒูŠ ุงู„ุฅูŠุฏุฑูˆุฌูŠู† ูˆุงู„ู‡ูŠู„ูŠูˆู… ุงู„ู…ูˆุฌูˆุฏุฉ ุจุฏุงุฎู„ ุงู„ูƒุชู„ ุงู„ูƒุซูŠูุฉ ููŠ ุงู„ุชูƒุฏุณ ุนู„ูŠ ุฐุงุชู‡ุง ุจู…ุนุฏู„ุงุช ุฃูƒุจุฑโ€ ุ› ู…ู…ุง ุฃุฏูŠ ุฅู„ู‰ ู…ุฒูŠุฏ ู…ู† ุงู„ุงุฑุชูุงุน ููŠ ุฏุฑุฌุงุช ุญุฑุงุฑุชู‡ุง ุญุชูŠ ูˆุตู„ุช ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ุฏุฑุฌุงุช ุงู„ู„ุงุฒู…ุฉ ู„ุจุฏุก ุนู…ู„ูŠุฉ ุงู„ุงู†ุฏู…ุงุฌ ุงู„ู†ูˆูˆูŠ ุ› ูุชูƒูˆู†ุช ุงู„ู†ุฌูˆู… ุงู„ู…ู†ุชุฌุฉ ู„ู„ุถูˆุก ูˆุงู„ุญุฑุงุฑุฉโ€.โ€
    - ูˆููŠ ุงู„ู†ุฌูˆู… ุงู„ูƒุจูŠุฑุฉ ุงู„ูƒุชู„ุฉ ุงุณุชู…ุฑุช ุนู…ู„ูŠุฉ ุงู„ุงู†ุฏู…ุงุฌ ุงู„ู†ูˆูˆูŠ ุ› ู„ุชุฎู„ูŠู‚ ุงู„ุนู†ุงุตุฑ ุงู„ุฃุนู„ู‰ ููŠ ูˆุฒู†ู‡ุง ุงู„ุฐุฑูŠ ุจุงู„ุชุฏุฑูŠุฌ ู…ุซู„:ุงู„ูƒุฑุจูˆู† ูˆุงู„ุฃูˆูƒุณูŠุฌูŠู† ูˆู…ุง ูŠู„ูŠู‡ู…ุง ุ› ุญุชูŠ ูŠุชุญูˆู„ ู„ุจ ุงู„ู†ุฌู… ุจุงู„ูƒุงู…ู„ ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ุญุฏูŠุฏ ุ› ููŠู†ูุฌุฑ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ู†ุฌู… ุงู„ู…ุณุชุนุฑ โ€(Nova)โ€ุนู„ูŠ ู‡ูŠุฆุฉ: ููˆู‚ ุงู„ู…ุณุชุนุฑุงุชุŒ ูˆุชุชู†ุงุซุฑ ุฃุดู„ุงุก ููˆู‚ ุงู„ู…ุณุชุนุฑุงุช ูˆู…ุง ุจู‡ุง ู…ู† ุนู†ุงุตุฑ ุซู‚ูŠู„ุฉ ููŠ ุฏุงุฎู„ ุงู„ู…ุฌุฑุฉ ุ› ู„ุชุชูƒูˆู† ู…ู†ู‡ุง ุงู„ูƒูˆุงูƒุจ ูˆุงู„ูƒูˆูŠูƒุจุงุช โ€ุŒโ€ ุจูŠู†ู…ุง ูŠุจู‚ูŠ ู…ู†ู‡ุง ููŠ ุบุงุฒุงุช ุงู„ู…ุฌุฑุฉ ู…ุง ูŠู…ูƒู† ุฃู† ูŠุฏุฎู„ ููŠ ุจู†ุงุก ู†ุฌู… ุขุฎุฑโ€.โ€
    - ูˆุชุญุชูˆูŠ ุดู…ุณู†ุง ุนู„ูŠ ู†ุญูˆโ€ 2%โ€ ู…ู† ูƒุชู„ุชู‡ุง ู…ู† ุงู„ุนู†ุงุตุฑ ุงู„ุฃุซู‚ู„ ููŠ ุฃูˆุฒุงู†ู‡ุง ุงู„ุฐุฑูŠุฉุŒ ู…ู† ุบุงุฒูŠ: ุงู„ุฅูŠุฏุฑูˆุฌูŠู† ูˆุงู„ู‡ูŠู„ูŠูˆู…โ€ ุŒโ€ ูˆู‡ู…ุง ุงู„ู…ูƒูˆู†ุงู† ุงู„ุฃุณุงุณูŠุงู† ู„ู‡ุงโ€ ุŒโ€ ูˆู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุนู†ุงุตุฑ ุงู„ุซู‚ูŠู„ุฉ ู„ู… ุชุชูƒูˆู† ูƒู„ู‡ุง ุจุงู„ู‚ุทุน ููŠ ุฏุงุฎู„ ุงู„ุดู…ุณ ุŒ
    ุจู„ ุฌุงุกุช ุฅู„ูŠู‡ุง ู…ู† ุจู‚ุงูŠุง ุงู†ูุฌุงุฑ ุจุนุถ ู…ู† ููˆู‚ ุงู„ู…ุณุชุนุฑุงุชโ€.โ€

    - ูˆูŠู‚ุฑุฑ ุนู„ู…ุงุก ุงู„ููŠุฒูŠุงุก ุงู„ู†ุธุฑูŠุฉ ูˆุงู„ูู„ูƒูŠุฉ ุฃู† ุงู„ุฏุฎุงู† ุงู„ูƒูˆู†ูŠ ุŒ ูƒุงู† ุฎู„ูŠุทุงู‹ ู…ู† ุงู„ุบุงุฒุงุช ุงู„ุญุงุฑุฉ ุงู„ู…ุนุชู…ุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชุชุฎู„ู„ู‡ุง ุจุนุถ ุงู„ุฌุณูŠู…ุงุช ุงู„ุฃูˆู„ูŠุฉ ู„ู„ู…ุงุฏุฉ ูˆุฃุถุฏุงุฏ ุงู„ู…ุงุฏุฉ ุŒ ู„ุชุดู‡ุฏ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุตูˆุฑุฉ ู…ู† ุตูˆุฑ ุงู„ุฒูˆุฌูŠุฉ ุงู„ุณุงุฆุฏุฉ ููŠ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ู„ู„ู‡ ูˆุญุฏู‡ ุจุงู„ุชูุฑุฏ ุจุงู„ูˆุญุฏุงู†ูŠุฉ ููˆู‚ ูƒุงูุฉ ุฎู„ู‚ู‡โ€ ุŒโ€ ูˆู„ุง ุชูˆุฌุฏ ูƒู„ู…ุฉ ุชูˆููŠ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุญุงู„ุฉ ุญู‚ู‡ุง ู…ุซู„ ูƒู„ู…ุฉ ุฏุฎุงู† ุ› ูุณุจุญุงู† ุงู„ุฐูŠ ุฃู†ุฒู„ู‡ุง ููŠ ูƒุชุงุจู‡ ู…ู† ู‚ุจู„ ุฃู„ู ูˆุฃุฑุจุนู…ุงุฆุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ุณู†ูŠู† ุŒ ูˆุธู„ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุฏุฎุงู† ุงู„ู…ุนุชู… ุณุงุฆุฏุง ุŒ ูˆู…ุญุชูˆูŠุง ุนู„ูŠ ุฐุฑุงุช ุงู„ุนู†ุงุตุฑุงู„ุชูŠ ุฎู„ู‚ ู…ู†ู‡ุง ุจุนุฏ ุฐู„ูƒ ูƒู„ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฃุฑุถ ูˆุงู„ุณู…ุงุกโ€.โ€โ€
    - ูˆูŠู‚ุฏุฑ ุงู„ุนู„ู…ุงุก ูƒุชู„ุฉ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุฏุฎุงู† ุงู„ู…ุนุชู… ุจุญูˆุงู„ูŠโ€ 90%โ€ ู…ู† ูƒุชู„ุฉ ุงู„ู…ุงุฏุฉ ููŠ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุงู„ู…ู†ุธูˆุฑโ€ุŒโ€ ูˆูƒุชุจ ุฌูˆุฑุฌ ุณู…ูˆุช -ุฃุญุฏ ุงู„ู…ุณุฆูˆู„ูŠู† ุนู† ุฑุญู„ุฉ ุงู„ู…ุณุชูƒุดู- ุชู‚ุฑูŠุฑุงู‹ ู†ุดุฑูŽู‡ู ุณู†ุฉ โ€1992โ€ู… ุจุงู„ู†ุชุงุฆุฌ ุงู„ู…ุณุชู‚ุงู‡ ู…ู† ุนุฏุฏ ู‡ุงุฆู„ ู…ู† ุตูˆุฑ ูƒูˆู†ูŠุฉ ุŒ ูƒุงู† ู…ู† ุฃู‡ู… ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู†ุชุงุฆุฌ : ุงู„ุญุงู„ุฉ ุงู„ุฏุฎุงู†ูŠุฉ ุงู„ู…ุชุฌุงู†ุณุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุณุงุฏุช ุงู„ูˆุฌูˆุฏ ุนู‚ุจ ุงู„ุงู†ูุฌุงุฑ ุงู„ูƒูˆู†ูŠ ุงู„ุนุธูŠู… ุŒโ€
    ูˆูƒุฐู„ูƒ ุฏุฑุฌุฉ ุงู„ุญุฑุงุฑุฉ ุงู„ู…ุชุจู‚ูŠุฉ ุนู„ูŠ ู‡ูŠุฆุฉ ุฎู„ููŠุฉ ุงุดุนุงุนูŠุฉ ุฃูƒุฏุช ุญุฏูˆุซ ุฐู„ูƒ ุงู„ุงู†ูุฌุงุฑ ุงู„ูƒุจูŠุฑ โ€.โ€
    - ูˆูƒุงู† ููŠ ุชู„ูƒ ุงู„ูƒุดูˆู ุฃุจู„ุบ ุงู„ุฑุฏ ุนู„ูŠ ุงู„ู†ุธุฑูŠุงุช ุงู„ุฎุงุทุฆุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุญุงูˆู„ุช -ู…ู† ู…ู†ุทู„ู‚ุงุช ุงู„ูƒูุฑ ูˆุงู„ุฅู„ุญุงุฏ- :
    ุชุฌุงูˆูุฒ ุงู„ุฎู„ู‚ โ€ุŒโ€ ูˆุงู„ุฌุญูˆุฏ ุจุงู„ุฎุงู„ู‚ โ€-โ€ุณุจุญุงู†ู‡ ูˆุชุนุงู„ู‰โ€-โ€ ุ› ูู†ุงุฏุช ูƒุฐุจุง ุจุฏูŠู…ูˆู…ุฉ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุจู„ุง ุจุฏุงูŠุฉ ูˆู„ุง ู†ู‡ุงูŠุฉ ุŒ ู…ู† ู…ุซู„: ู†ุธุฑูŠุฉ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุงู„ู…ุณุชู…ุฑ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุณุจู‚ ุฃู† ุฃุนู„ู†ู‡ุง ูˆุฏุงูุน ุนู†ู‡ุง ูƒู„ ู…ู† ู‡ูŠุฑู…ุงู† ุจูˆู†ุฏูŠ โ€ ูˆูุฑูŠุฏ ู‡ูˆูŠู„ููŠ ุณู†ุฉโ€1949โ€ู…โ€
    ุŒ โ€ ูˆู†ุธุฑูŠุฉ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุงู„ู…ุชุฐุจุฐุจโ€ ุงู„ุชูŠ ู†ุงุฏูŠ ุจู‡ุง ุฑูŠุชุดุงุฑุฏ ุชูˆู„ู…ุงู† ู…ู† ู‚ุจู„โ€.

    - ูู‚ุฏ ูƒุงู† ููŠ ุฅุซุจุงุช ูˆุฌูˆุฏ ุงู„ุฏุฎุงู† ุงู„ูƒูˆู†ูŠ ูˆุงู„ุฎู„ููŠุฉ ุงู„ุฅุดุนุงุนูŠุฉ ู„ู„ูƒูˆู† ุจุนุฏ ุฅุซุจุงุช ุชูˆุณุน ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ู…ุง ูŠุฌุฒู… ุจุฃู† ูƒูˆู†ู†ุง ู…ุฎู„ูˆู‚ ู„ู‡ ุจุฏุงูŠุฉ ุŒ ูˆู„ุงุจุฏ ุฃู† ุณุชูƒูˆู† ู„ู‡ ููŠ ูŠูˆู… ู…ู† ุงู„ุฃูŠุงู… ู†ู‡ุงูŠุฉโ€ ุŒ ูˆู‚ุฏ ุฃูƒุฏุช ุงู„ุตูˆุฑ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุจุซุชู‡ุง:
    ู…ุฑูƒุจุฉ ุงู„ู…ุณุชูƒุดูโ€ ู„ู„ุฎู„ููŠุฉ ุงู„ุฅุดุนุงุนูŠุฉ ูˆุงู„ุชูŠ ู†ุดุฑุช ููŠ ุงุจุฑูŠู„ ุณู†ุฉโ€1992โ€ู… ูƒู„ ุชู„ูƒ ุงู„ุญู‚ุงุฆู‚โ€.โ€

    ุตูˆุฑุฉ ุงู„ุชู‚ุทุช ู„ู„ุฅุดุนุงุน ุงู„ุฎู„ููŠ ู„ู„ูƒูˆู† (Back ground radiation): ูุงู„ุจู‚ุน ุงู„ุญู…ุฑุงุก ุชู…ุซู„ ุฃู…ุงูƒู† ุงู„ุญุฑุงุฑุฉ ุŒ

    ูˆุงู„ุจู‚ุน ุงู„ุฒุฑู‚ุงุก ุชู…ุซู„ ุงู„ุฃู…ุงูƒู† ุงู„ุจุงุฑ

    ุฏุฉ

    3-ุฅุดุงุฑุงุช ู‚ุฑุขู†ูŠุฉ ู„ุชุญุฏูŠุฏ ุนู…ุฑ ุงู„ูƒูˆู†

    - ู„ู‚ุฏ ุฐูƒุฑ ุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู† ุงู„ูƒุฑูŠู… ููŠ ูƒุซูŠุฑ ู…ู† ุขูŠุงุชู€ู‡ ุฃู† ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰ ุฎู„ู‚ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ููŠ ุณุชู€ุฉ ุฃูŠุงู… ุŒ ูƒู…ู€ุง ููŠ ู‚ูˆู„ู‡ ุณุจุญุงู†ู€ู‡:
    (ูˆูŽู„ูŽู‚ูŽุฏู’ ุฎูŽู„ูŽู‚ู’ู†ูŽุง ุงู„ุณูŽู‘ู…ูŽุงูˆูŽุงุชู ูˆูŽุงู„ู’ุฃูŽุฑู’ุถูŽ ูˆูŽู…ูŽุง ุจูŽูŠู’ู†ูŽู‡ูู…ูŽุง ูููŠ ุณูุชูŽู‘ุฉู ุฃูŽูŠูŽู‘ุงู…ู ูˆูŽู…ูŽุง ู…ูŽุณูŽู‘ู†ูŽุง ู…ูู†ู’ ู„ูุบููˆุจู)(ู‚ู‘:38).

    - ุฃู…ุง ุนู† ุงู„ุฃูŠุงู… ุŒ ูุงู„ู…ู‚ุตูˆุฏ ุจู‡ุง ู…ุฑุงุญู„ ุฃูˆ ุญู‚ุจ ุฒู…ู†ูŠุฉ ุŒ ู„ุฎู„ู‚ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ูˆ ู„ูŠุณุช ุงู„ุฃูŠุงู… ุงู„ุชูŠ ู†ุนุฏู‡ุง ู†ุญู† ุงู„ุจุดุฑ ุŒ
    ุจุฏู„ูŠู„ ุนุฏู… ูˆุฌูˆุฏ ุนุจุงุฑุฉ “ู…ู…ุง ุชุนุฏูˆู†” ููŠ ุฌู…ูŠุน ุงู„ุขูŠุงุช ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชุชุญุฏุซ ุนู† ุงู„ุฃูŠุงู… ุงู„ุณุชุฉ ู„ู„ุฎู„ู‚ ูƒู…ุง ููŠ ู‚ูˆู„ู‡ -ุชุนุงู„ู‰- :
    (ูˆูŽู‡ููˆูŽ ุงู„ูŽู‘ุฐููŠ ุฎูŽู„ูŽู‚ูŽ ุงู„ุณูŽู‘ู…ูŽุงูˆูŽุงุชู ูˆูŽุงู„ู’ุฃูŽุฑู’ุถูŽ ูููŠ ุณูุชูŽู‘ุฉู ุฃูŽูŠูŽู‘ุงู…ู ูˆูŽูƒูŽุงู†ูŽ ุนูŽุฑู’ุดูู‡ู ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ุงู„ู’ู…ูŽุงุกู ู„ููŠูŽุจู’ู„ููˆูŽูƒูู…ู’ ุฃูŽูŠูู‘ูƒูู…ู’ ุฃูŽุญู’ุณูŽู†ู ุนูŽู…ูŽู„ุงู‹
    ูˆูŽู„ูŽุฆูู†ู’ ู‚ูู„ู’ุชูŽ ุฅูู†ูŽู‘ูƒูู…ู’ ู…ูŽุจู’ุนููˆุซููˆู†ูŽ ู…ูู†ู’ ุจูŽุนู’ุฏู ุงู„ู’ู…ูŽูˆู’ุชู ู„ูŽูŠูŽู‚ููˆู„ูŽู†ูŽู‘ ุงู„ูŽู‘ุฐููŠู†ูŽ ูƒูŽููŽุฑููˆุง ุฅูู†ู’ ู‡ูŽุฐูŽุง ุฅูู„ูŽู‘ุง ุณูุญู’ุฑูŒ ู…ูุจููŠู†ูŒ) (ู‡ูˆุฏ:7) ุŒ
    ูˆู‚ูˆู„ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰ :(ุงู„ู„ูŽู‘ู‡ู ุงู„ูŽู‘ุฐููŠ ุฎูŽู„ูŽู‚ูŽ ุงู„ุณูŽู‘ู…ูŽุงูˆูŽุงุชู ูˆูŽุงู„ู’ุฃูŽุฑู’ุถูŽ ูˆูŽู…ูŽุง ุจูŽูŠู’ู†ูŽู‡ูู…ูŽุง ูููŠ ุณูุชูŽู‘ุฉู ุฃูŽูŠูŽู‘ุงู…ู ุซูู…ูŽู‘ ุงุณู’ุชูŽูˆูŽู‰ ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ุงู„ู’ุนูŽุฑู’ุดู ู…ูŽุง ู„ูŽูƒูู…ู’ ู…ูู†ู’ ุฏููˆู†ูู‡ู ู…ูู†ู’ ูˆูŽู„ููŠูู‘ ูˆูŽู„ุง ุดูŽูููŠุนู ุฃูŽููŽู„ุง ุชูŽุชูŽุฐูŽูƒูŽู‘ุฑููˆู†ูŽ) (ุงู„ุณุฌุฏุฉ:4) ุŒ
    ูˆู‡ู†ุง ู†ู„ุงุญุธ ุฃู† ุงู„ูŠูˆู… ููŠ ุณูˆุฑุฉ ุงู„ุณุฌุฏุฉ ุขูŠุฉ (4) : ูŠู…ุซู„ ู…ุฑุญู„ุฉ ู…ู† ู…ุฑุงุญู„ ุงู„ุฎู„ู‚ ุŒ
    ุฃู…ุง ุงู„ูŠูˆู… ููŠ ุงู„ุขูŠุฉ (5) : ูู‡ูˆ ู…ู† ุฃูŠุงู…ู†ุง ุงู„ุชูŠ ู†ุนุฏู‡ุง ุจุทู„ูˆุน ุงู„ุดู…ุณ ูƒู„ ูŠูˆู… ุŒ
    ูˆุงู„ุณุคุงู„ ุงู„ุขู† ู‡ูˆ: ู…ุง ู‡ูŠ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุฃูŠุงู… ุฃูˆ ุงู„ู…ุฑุงุญู„ ุงู„ุณุชุฉ ุŒูˆูƒูŠู ูŠู…ูƒู† ุชู‚ุณูŠู…ู‡ุง ูƒูˆู†ูŠุงู‹ ุŸ
    ุงู„ุฅุดุงุฑุฉ ุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู†ูŠุฉ :-
    - ู‚ุงู„- ุชุนุงู„ู‰- : ” ู‚ูู„ู’ ุฃูŽุฆูู†ูŽู‘ูƒูู…ู’ ู„ูŽุชูŽูƒู’ููุฑููˆู†ูŽ ุจูุงู„ูŽู‘ุฐููŠ ุฎูŽู„ูŽู‚ูŽ ุงู„ู’ุฃูŽุฑู’ุถูŽ ูููŠ ูŠูŽูˆู’ู…ูŽูŠู’ู†ู ูˆูŽุชูŽุฌู’ุนูŽู„ููˆู†ูŽ ู„ูŽู‡ู ุฃูŽู†ุฏูŽุงุฏุงู‹ ุฐูŽู„ููƒูŽ ุฑูŽุจูู‘ ุงู„ู’ุนูŽุงู„ูŽู…ููŠู†ูŽ …
    ูˆูŽุฌูŽุนูŽู„ูŽ ูููŠู‡ูŽุง ุฑูŽูˆูŽุงุณููŠูŽ ู…ูู† ููŽูˆู’ู‚ูู‡ูŽุง ูˆูŽุจูŽุงุฑูŽูƒูŽ ูููŠู‡ูŽุง ูˆูŽู‚ูŽุฏูŽู‘ุฑูŽ ูููŠู‡ูŽุง ุฃูŽู‚ู’ูˆูŽุงุชูŽู‡ูŽุง ูููŠ ุฃูŽุฑู’ุจูŽุนูŽุฉู ุฃูŽูŠูŽู‘ุงู…ู ุณูŽูˆูŽุงุก ู„ูู‘ู„ุณูŽู‘ุงุฆูู„ููŠู†ูŽ …
    ุซูู…ูŽู‘ ุงุณู’ุชูŽูˆูŽู‰ ุฅูู„ูŽู‰ ุงู„ุณูŽู‘ู…ูŽุงุก ูˆูŽู‡ููŠูŽ ุฏูุฎูŽุงู†ูŒ ููŽู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽ ู„ูŽู‡ูŽุง ูˆูŽู„ูู„ู’ุฃูŽุฑู’ุถู ุงูุฆู’ุชููŠูŽุง ุทูŽูˆู’ุนุงู‹ ุฃูŽูˆู’ ูƒูŽุฑู’ู‡ุงู‹ ู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽุชูŽุง ุฃูŽุชูŽูŠู’ู†ูŽุง ุทูŽุงุฆูุนููŠู†ูŽ …
    ููŽู‚ูŽุถูŽุงู‡ูู†ูŽู‘ ุณูŽุจู’ุนูŽ ุณูŽู…ูŽุงูˆูŽุงุชู ูููŠ ูŠูŽูˆู’ู…ูŽูŠู’ู†ู ูˆูŽุฃูŽูˆู’ุญูŽู‰ ูููŠ ูƒูู„ูู‘ ุณูŽู…ูŽุงุก ุฃูŽู…ู’ุฑูŽู‡ูŽุง ูˆูŽุฒูŽูŠูŽู‘ู†ูŽู‘ุง ุงู„ุณูŽู‘ู…ูŽุงุก ุงู„ุฏูู‘ู†ู’ูŠูŽุง ุจูู…ูŽุตูŽุงุจููŠุญูŽ ูˆูŽุญููู’ุธุงู‹
    ุฐูŽู„ููƒูŽ ุชูŽู‚ู’ุฏููŠุฑู ุงู„ู’ุนูŽุฒููŠุฒู ุงู„ู’ุนูŽู„ููŠู…ู”(ูุตู„ุช:9-12) ุ› ุทุจู‚ุงู‹ ู„ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุขูŠุงุช ูุฅู† ุงู„ุฃูŠุงู… ุงู„ุณุชุฉ ู„ู„ุฎู„ู‚ ู‚ุณู…ุช -ูƒู…ุง ุฃุฌู…ุน ุงู„ู…ูุณุฑูˆู†- ุฅู„ู‰ ุซู„ุงุซุฉ ุฃู‚ุณุงู… ู…ุชุณุงูˆูŠุฉ ุŒ ูƒู„ ู‚ุณู… ูŠุนุงุฏู„ ูŠูˆู…ูŠู† ู…ู† ุฃูŠุงู… ุงู„ุฎู„ู‚ ุจุงู„ู…ูู‡ูˆู… ุงู„ู†ุณุจูŠ ู„ู„ุฒู…ู† ูƒุงู„ุขุชูŠ :

    ุฃูˆู„ุงู‹ : ูŠูˆู…ุงู† ู„ุฎู„ู‚ ุงู„ุฃุฑุถ ู…ู† ุงู„ุณู…ุงุก ุงู„ุฏุฎุงู†ูŠุฉ ุงู„ุฃูˆู„ู‰ :-
    - ู‚ุงู„ ุชุนุงู„ู‰: (ู‚ูู„ู’ ุฃูŽุฅูู†ูŽู‘ูƒูู…ู’ ู„ูŽุชูŽูƒู’ููุฑููˆู†ูŽ ุจูุงู„ูŽู‘ุฐููŠ ุฎูŽู„ูŽู‚ูŽ ุงู„ู’ุฃูŽุฑู’ุถูŽ ูููŠ ูŠูŽูˆู’ู…ูŽูŠู’ู†ู ูˆูŽุชูŽุฌู’ุนูŽู„ููˆู†ูŽ ู„ูŽู‡ู ุฃูŽู†ู’ุฏูŽุงุฏุงู‹ ุฐูŽู„ููƒูŽ ุฑูŽุจูู‘ ุงู„ู’ุนูŽุงู„ูŽู…ููŠู†ูŽ)(ูุตู„ุช:9).

    ุซุงู†ูŠุงู‹ : ูŠูˆู…ุงู† ู„ุชุณูˆูŠุฉ ุงู„ุณู…ุงูˆุงุช ุงู„ุณุจุน : -
    - ู‚ุงู„ ุชุนุงู„ู‰ :(ููŽู‚ูŽุถูŽุงู‡ูู†ูŽู‘ ุณูŽุจู’ุนูŽ ุณูŽู…ูŽุงูˆูŽุงุชู ูููŠ ูŠูŽูˆู’ู…ูŽูŠู’ู†ู ูˆูŽุฃูŽูˆู’ุญูŽู‰ ูููŠ ูƒูู„ูู‘ ุณูŽู…ูŽุงุก ุฃูŽู…ู’ุฑูŽู‡ูŽุง ูˆูŽุฒูŽูŠูŽู‘ู†ูŽู‘ุง ุงู„ุณูŽู‘ู…ูŽุงุก ุงู„ุฏูู‘ู†ู’ูŠูŽุง ุจูู…ูŽุตูŽุงุจููŠุญูŽ ูˆูŽุญููู’ุธุงู‹ ุฐูŽู„ููƒูŽ ุชูŽู‚ู’ุฏููŠุฑู ุงู„ู’ุนูŽุฒููŠุฒู ุงู„ู’ุนูŽู„ููŠู…ู)(ูุตู„ุช:12) ุŒ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ูŠุดูŠุฑ ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ุญุงู„ ุงู„ุฏุฎุงู†ูŠุฉ ู„ู„ุณู…ุงุก ุจุนุฏ ุงู„ุงู†ูุฌุงุฑ ุงู„ูƒูˆู†ูŠ ุงู„ุนุธูŠู… ุจูŠูˆู…ูŠู† ุŒ ุญูŠุซ ุจุฏุฃ ุชุดูƒู„ ุงู„ุณู…ุงูˆุงุช ูู‚ุถุงู‡ู† ุณุจุน ุณู…ุงูˆุงุช ููŠ ูŠูˆู…ูŠู† .

    ุซุงู„ุซุงู‹ : ูŠูˆู…ุงู† ู„ุชุฏุจูŠุฑ ุงู„ุฃุฑุถ ุฌูŠูˆู„ูˆุฌูŠุงู‹ ูˆ ุชุณุฎูŠุฑู‡ุง ู„ู„ุฅู†ุณุงู† : -
    - ู‚ุงู„ ุชุนุงู„ู‰:(ูˆูŽุฌูŽุนูŽู„ูŽ ูููŠู‡ูŽุง ุฑูŽูˆูŽุงุณููŠูŽ ู…ูู† ููŽูˆู’ู‚ูู‡ูŽุง ูˆูŽุจูŽุงุฑูŽูƒูŽ ูููŠู‡ูŽุง ูˆูŽู‚ูŽุฏูŽู‘ุฑูŽ ูููŠู‡ูŽุง ุฃูŽู‚ู’ูˆูŽุงุชูŽู‡ูŽุง ูููŠ ุฃูŽุฑู’ุจูŽุนูŽุฉู ุฃูŽูŠูŽู‘ุงู…ู ุณูŽูˆูŽุงุก ู„ูู‘ู„ุณูŽู‘ุงุฆูู„ููŠู†ูŽ)(ูุตู„ุช:10) ุ› ู…ู…ุง ูŠุดูŠุฑ ุฅู„ู‰ ุฌุจุงู„ ู†ูŠุฒูƒูŠุฉ ุณู‚ุทุช ูˆุงุณุชู‚ุฑุช ููŠ ุงู„ุจุฏุงูŠุฉ ุนู„ู‰ ู‚ุดุฑุฉ ุงู„ุฃุฑุถ ููˆุฑ ุชุตู„ุจู‡ุง ุจุฏู„ูŠู„ ู‚ูˆู„ู‡ “ู…ู† ููˆู‚ู‡ุง”.

    - ูˆู‚ูˆู„ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰:”ูˆ ุจุงุฑูƒ ููŠู‡ุง ุฃู‚ูˆุงุชู‡ุง -ุฃูŠ ู‚ุฏูŽู‘ุฑ ุฃุฑุฒุงู‚ ุฃู‡ู„ู‡ุง- ุŒ ูˆู‚ูˆู„ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰ : “ููŠ ุฃุฑุจุนุฉ ุฃูŠุงู… ุณูˆุงุก ู„ู„ุณุงุฆู„ูŠู†” :
    ุฃูŠ ุชู…ุงู… ุฃุฑุจุนุฉ ุฃูŠุงู… ูƒุงู…ู„ุฉ ู…ุชุณุงูˆูŠุฉุŒ ุจู„ุง ุฒูŠุงุฏุฉ ูˆู„ุง ู†ู‚ุตุงู† ู„ู„ุณุงุฆู„ูŠู† ู…ู† ุงู„ุจุดุฑ ุนู† ู…ุฏุฉ ุฎู„ู‚ู‡ุง ูˆู…ุง ููŠู‡ุง.

    - ูˆูŠุฑู‰ ุฌู…ูŠุน ุงู„ู…ูุณุฑูŠู† ุฃู† ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุฃูŠุงู… ุงู„ุฃุฑุจุนุฉ ุชุดู…ู„: ูŠูˆู…ูŠ ุฎู„ู‚ ุงู„ุฃุฑุถ ูˆ ูŠูˆู…ูŠ ุงู„ุชุฏุจูŠุฑ ุงู„ุฌูŠูˆู„ูˆุฌูŠ ู„ู‡ุง ุŒ ูˆูŠุชุถุญ ู…ู…ุง ุณุจู‚ :
    ุชุณุงูˆูŠ ุงู„ุฃูŠุงู… ุฒู…ู†ูŠุงู‹ ุŒ ูˆุฅู„ุง ู„ู…ุง ุฃู…ูƒู† ุฌู…ุนู‡ุง ูˆ ุชู‚ุณูŠู…ู‡ุง ุฅู„ู‰ ุซู„ุงุซุฉ ู…ุฑุงุญู„ ู…ุชุณุงูˆูŠุฉ.

    ุงู„ุชุฏุจูŠุฑ ุงู„ุฌูŠูˆู„ูˆุฌูŠ ู„ู„ุฃุฑุถ ุญุชู‰ ูˆุตูˆู„ ุงู„ุณุงุฆู„ูŠู† (ุงู„ุฅู†ุณุงู† ): ุงุณุชุบุฑู‚ ูŠูˆู…ูŠู† ู…ู† ุฃูŠุงู… ุงู„ุฎู„ู‚ ุงู„ุณุชุฉ ุ›
    ุฃูŠ ุงุณุชุบุฑู‚ ุซู„ุซ ุนู…ุฑ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† .

    - ูˆุญูŠุซ ุฃู† ุงู„ุชุฏุจูŠุฑ ุงู„ุฌูŠูˆู„ูˆุฌูŠ ู„ู„ุฃุฑุถ ู…ู†ุฐ ุจุฏุก ุชุตู„ุจ ุงู„ู‚ุดุฑุฉ ุงู„ุฃุฑุถูŠุฉุŒ ูˆุญุชู‰ ุธู‡ูˆุฑ ุงู„ุฅู†ุณุงู† ู‚ุฏ ุงุณุชุบุฑู‚ ุฒู…ู†ุงู‹ ู‚ุฏุฑู‡ 4.5 ู…ู„ูŠุงุฑ ุณู†ุฉ -ุทุจู‚ุงู‹ ู„ุฏุฑุงุณุฉ ุนู…ุฑ ุงู„ุฃุฑุถ- ุ› ุฅุฐุงู‹ ุนู…ุฑ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† =4.5 ร— 3= 13.5ู…ู„ูŠุงุฑ ุณู†ุฉ ุŒ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุฑู‚ู… ูŠู‚ุงุฑุจ ู…ุง ุชูˆุตู„ุช ุฅู„ูŠู‡ ูˆูƒุงู„ุฉ ุงู„ูุถุงุก ุงู„ุฃู…ุฑูŠูƒูŠุฉ ู†ุงุณุง ู…ุคุฎุฑุงู‹ ุŒ ูˆุฐู„ูƒ ุจุงุณุชุฎุฏุงู… ู…ูƒูˆูƒ ูุถุงุฆูŠ ู…ุฒูˆุฏ ุจู…ุฌุณุงุช ู…ุชุทูˆุฑุฉ ุฌุฏุงู‹ ุ› ู„ุฏุฑุงุณุฉ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุญูŠุซ ู‚ุฏุฑุช ุนู…ุฑ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุจู€ 13.7 ู…ู„ูŠุงุฑ ุณู†ุฉ.

    4- ู…ุงุฐุง ุณูŠุญุฏุซ ู„ู„ูƒูˆู† ููŠ ุงู„ู†ู‡ุงูŠุฉุŸ!

    - ุจุนุฏ ูˆุตู ุนู…ู„ูŠุฉ ุจุฏุก ุงู„ุฎู„ู‚ ููŠ ุงู„ุฃูŠุฉ (30) ู…ู† ุณูˆุฑุฉ ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก -ูƒู…ุง ุฑุฃูŠู†ุง- ูŠุฎุจุฑู†ุง ุฑุณูˆู„ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ููŠ ุญุฏูŠุซ ุตุญูŠุญ ุญูˆู„ ู…ุณุชู‚ุจู„ ู…ุซู„ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ููŠ ู†ู‡ุงูŠุชู‡ ุฃูˆ ููŠ ูŠูˆู… ุงู„ุจุนุซ :
    ูุนู† ุนุจุฏ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุจู† ุนู…ุฑูˆ ู‚ุงู„ : ู‚ุงู„ ุฑุณูˆู„ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุณู„ู…:” ูŠุทูˆูŠ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุงู„ุณู…ุงูˆุงุช ูŠูˆู… ุงู„ู‚ูŠุงู…ุฉ
    ุซู… ูŠุฃุฎุฐู‡ู† ุจูŠุฏู‡ ุงู„ูŠู…ู†ู‰ ุซู… ูŠู‚ูˆู„ ุฃู†ุง ุงู„ู…ู„ูƒ ุฃูŠู† ุงู„ุฌุจุงุฑูˆู† ุŸ ุฃูŠู† ุงู„ู…ุชูƒุจุฑูˆู† ุŸ ุซู… ูŠุทูˆูŠ ุงู„ุฃุฑุถูŠู† ุจุดู…ุงู„ู‡ ุŒ
    ูˆููŠ ุฑูˆุงูŠุฉ : ูŠุฃุฎุฐู‡ู† ุจูŠุฏู‡ ุงู„ุฃุฎุฑู‰ ุซู… ูŠู‚ูˆู„ ุฃู†ุง ุงู„ู…ู„ูƒ ุฃูŠู† ุงู„ุฌุจุงุฑูˆู† ุฃูŠู† ุงู„ู…ุชูƒุจุฑูˆู† ุŸ ” (ุฑูˆุงู‡ ู…ุณู„ู…) ุŒ
    ูˆู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุญุฏูŠุซ ุงู„ุดุฑูŠู ูŠู†ุทู„ู‚ ุฃูŠุถุงู‹ ู…ู† ู…ุนู†ู‰ ุขูŠุชูŠู† ูƒุฑูŠู…ุชูŠู† ูŠู‚ูˆู„ ููŠู‡ู…ุง ุฑุจู†ุง(ุชุจุงุฑูƒ ูˆุชุนุงู„ู‰) :

    1- (ูŠูŽูˆู’ู…ูŽ ู‡ูู… ุจูŽุงุฑูุฒููˆู†ูŽ ู„ูŽุง ูŠูŽุฎู’ููŽู‰ ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ุงู„ู„ูŽู‘ู‡ู ู…ูู†ู’ู‡ูู…ู’ ุดูŽูŠู’ุกูŒ ู„ูู‘ู…ูŽู†ู ุงู„ู’ู…ูู„ู’ูƒู ุงู„ู’ูŠูŽูˆู’ู…ูŽ ู„ูู„ูŽู‘ู‡ู ุงู„ู’ูˆูŽุงุญูุฏู ุงู„ู’ู‚ูŽู‡ูŽู‘ุงุฑู) (ุบุงูุฑ:16) ุŒ

    2- (ูˆูŽู…ูŽุง ู‚ูŽุฏูŽุฑููˆุง ุงู„ู„ูŽู‘ู‡ูŽ ุญูŽู‚ูŽู‘ ู‚ูŽุฏู’ุฑูู‡ู ูˆูŽุงู„ู’ุฃูŽุฑู’ุถู ุฌูŽู…ููŠุนุงู‹ ู‚ูŽุจู’ุถูŽุชูู‡ู ูŠูŽูˆู’ู…ูŽ ุงู„ู’ู‚ููŠูŽุงู…ูŽุฉู ูˆูŽุงู„ุณูŽู‘ู…ุงูˆูŽุงุชู ู…ูŽุทู’ูˆููŠูŽู‘ุงุชูŒ ุจููŠูŽู…ููŠู†ูู‡ู
    ุณูุจู’ุญูŽุงู†ูŽู‡ู ูˆูŽุชูŽุนูŽุงู„ูŽู‰ ุนูŽู…ูŽู‘ุง ูŠูุดู’ุฑููƒููˆู†ูŽ) (ุงู„ุฒู…ุฑ:67).
    1-4:ุฅุชูุงู‚ ุงู„ุนู„ู…ุงุก ูˆุงู„ู†ุธุฑูŠุงุช ู…ุน ุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู† ุงู„ูƒุฑูŠู…ุŒ ูˆุงู„ุณู†ุฉ ุงู„ู†ุจูˆูŠุฉ ุงู„ู…ุทู‡ุฑุฉ:-

    - ุฅู„ูŠูƒู… ูƒู„ุงู… ุนู„ู…ุงุก ูˆูƒุงู„ุฉ “ู†ุงุณุง” ุงู„ุฃู…ุฑูŠูƒูŠุฉ ู„ู„ูุถุงุก ูˆุจุงู„ุญุฑู ุงู„ูˆุงุญุฏ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ู…ูˆู‚ุน ุงู„ุฎุงุต ุจ”ู†ุงุณุง” :
    What is the Shape of the Universe?
    The density of the Universe determines its geometry or shape. If the density of the Universe exceeds the so-called “critical density”, then the shape of space is curved like the surface of a huge sphere. If the density of the Universe is less than the “critical density”, then the shape of space is curved like the surface of a saddle. If the density of the Universe exactly equals the “critical density”,
    then the shape of the Universe is flat like a sheet of paper.

    ู…ุง ู‡ูˆ ุดูƒู„ ุงู„ูƒูˆู†ุŸ

    ูƒุซุงูุฉ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ู‡ูŠ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชุญุฏุฏ ู‡ู†ุฏุณุฉ ุงู„ุดูƒู„ ุŒ ูุฅุฐุง ูƒุงู†ุช ูƒุซุงูุฉ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุชุฒูŠุฏ ุนู† ู…ุงูŠุณู…ู‰ ุจ”ุงู„ูƒุซุงูุฉ ุงู„ุญุฑุฌุฉ” ุ› ูŠูƒูˆู† ุดูƒู„ ุงู„ูุถุงุก ู…ู†ุญู†ู‰ ู…ุซู„: ุณุทุญ ุฌุณู… ูƒุฑูˆูŠ ุถุฎู… ุŒ ูˆุฅุฐุง ูƒุงู†ุช ูƒุซุงูุฉ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุฃู‚ู„ ู…ู† ุงู„ูƒุซุงูุฉ ุงู„ุญุฑุฌุฉ ุ› ูŠูƒูˆู† ุดูƒู„ ุงู„ูุถุงุก ู…ู†ุญู†ู‰ ู…ุซู„:
    ุณุทุญ ุงู„ุณุฑุฌ ุŒ ุฃู…ุง ุฅุฐุง ูƒุงู†ุช ูƒุซุงูุฉ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุชุณุงูˆูŠ ุชู…ุงู…ุงู‹ ุงู„ูƒุซุงูุฉ ุงู„ุญุฑุฌุฉ ุ› ูŠูƒูˆู† ุดูƒู„ ุงู„ูุถุงุก ู…ุณุทุญ ู…ุซู„: ุตููŠุญุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ูˆุฑู‚.

    - ุซู… ูŠุคูƒุฏ ู‡ุคู„ุงุก ุงู„ุนู„ู…ุงุก ุจุงู„ู†ุต :-
    The most widely accepted theory predicts that the density of the Universe is very close to the critical density, and that the shape of the Universe should be flat,
    like a sheet of paper.

    “ุฅู† ุงู„ู†ุธุฑูŠุฉ ุงู„ุฃูƒุซุฑ ูˆุงู„ุฃูˆุณุน ู‚ุจูˆู„ุงู‹ ุชุชูˆู‚ุน ุจุฃู† ูƒุซุงูุฉ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ู‚ุฑูŠุจุฉ ุฌุฏุงู‹ ู…ู† ุงู„ูƒุซุงูุฉ ุงู„ุญุฑุฌุฉ ุŒ ูˆุฃู† ุดูƒู„ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ูŠู†ุจุบูŠ ุฃู† ูŠูƒูˆู† ู…ู†ุจุณุทุงู‹ ุŒ ู…ุซู„ ุตููŠุญุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ูˆุฑู‚”.

    - ูˆูŠุณุจู‚ ุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู† ุงู„ูƒุฑูŠู… ู…ุงุชูˆุตู„ ุฅู„ูŠู‡ ู‡ุคู„ุงุก ุงู„ุนู„ู…ุงุก ู…ู„ุฎุตุงู‹ ู‡ุฐุง ุจุดูƒู„ ุฑุงุฆุน ููŠ ู‚ูˆู„ู‡ -ุชุนุงู„ู‰- :
    (ูŠูŽูˆู’ู…ูŽ ู†ูŽุทู’ูˆููŠ ุงู„ุณูŽู‘ู…ูŽุงุกูŽ ูƒูŽุทูŽูŠูู‘ ุงู„ุณูู‘ุฌูู„ูู‘ ู„ูู„ู’ูƒูุชูุจู ูƒูŽู…ูŽุง ุจูŽุฏูŽุฃู’ู†ูŽุง ุฃูŽูˆูŽู‘ู„ูŽ ุฎูŽู„ู’ู‚ู ู†ูุนููŠุฏูู‡ู
    ูˆูŽุนู’ุฏู‹ุง ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ู†ูŽุง ุฅูู†ูŽู‘ุง ูƒูู†ูŽู‘ุง ููŽุงุนูู„ููŠู†ูŽ) [ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก: 104].

    2-4:ุงู„ุชุนู„ูŠู‚ ุงู„ุนู„ู…ูŠ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุขูŠุฉ :-

    -ููŠ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุขูŠุฉ ูŠุตู ุงู„ู„ู‡ู ุนู…ู„ูŠุฉ ุฅู†ู‡ุงุก ุญูŠุงุฉ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุŒ ูˆุฃู†ู‡ ุจุฏุฃ ู…ู† “ุงู„ุฑุชู‚” ู„ุฐุง ู†ู‡ุงูŠุชู‡ ุณุชุฑุฌุน ุฅู„ู‰ ู†ูุณ ุงู„ุฃุตู„ ุจู†ูุณ ุงู„ุทุฑูŠู‚ุฉ -ูƒู…ุง ู„ูˆ ูƒุงู† ูŠุจุฏุฃ- ุŒ ููŠู‚ูˆู„ ุณุจุญุงู†ู‡ ุฃู†ู‡ ุณูŠู„ู ุงู„ุณู…ุงุก ูˆูŠุทูˆูŠู‡ุง ุŒ ูƒู…ุง ู„ูˆ ุฃู† ูˆุงุญุฏุงู‹ ูŠุทูˆูŠ ุตูุญุงุช ูƒุชุงุจ ุŒ ู„ู„ุนูˆุฏุฉ ุฅู„ู‰ ุฃุตู„ู‡ุง ูƒุงู„ุฑุชู‚ ุŒ ูˆุฅู† ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุงุช ุงู„ู…ู†ุฒู„ุฉ ู„ุชูุธู‡ุฑ ุนุธู…ุฉ ุงู„ุฎุงู„ู‚ ุฌู„ูŽู‘ ูˆุนูŽู„ุง.

    3-4:ุงู„ูุฑู‚ ุจูŠู† ุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู† ูˆู†ุธุฑูŠุงุช ุงู„ุนู„ู…ุงุก:-

    - ุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู† ูŠุดูŠุฑ ุจุฃู†ู‘ู‡ุง ุฅุฑุงุฏุฉ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ูˆูŠุฎุจุฑู†ุง ุงู„ู„ู‡ ููŠ ูƒุชุงุจู‡ ุจุฃู†ู‡ ู‡ูˆ ูˆุญุฏู‡ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูŠู‚ุฑู‘ุฑ ูˆู‚ุช ู…ุซู„ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู†ู‡ุงูŠุฉ :
    (ูŠูŽุณู’ุฃูŽู„ููˆู†ูŽูƒูŽ ุนูŽู†ู ุงู„ุณูŽู‘ุงุนูŽุฉู ุฃูŽูŠูŽู‘ุงู†ูŽ ู…ูุฑู’ุณูŽุงู‡ูŽุง ู‚ูู„ู’ ุฅูู†ูŽู‘ู…ูŽุง ุนูู„ู’ู…ูู‡ูŽุง ุนูู†ุฏูŽ ุฑูŽุจูู‘ูŠ ู„ุงูŽ ูŠูุฌูŽู„ูู‘ูŠู‡ูŽุง ู„ููˆูŽู‚ู’ุชูู‡ูŽุง ุฅูู„ุงูŽู‘ ู‡ููˆูŽ ุซูŽู‚ูู„ูŽุชู’ ูููŠ ุงู„ุณูŽู‘ู…ูŽุงูˆูŽุงุชู ูˆูŽุงู„ุฃูŽุฑู’ุถู ู„ุงูŽ ุชูŽุฃู’ุชููŠูƒูู…ู’ ุฅูู„ุงูŽู‘ ุจูŽุบู’ุชูŽุฉู‹ ูŠูŽุณู’ุฃูŽู„ููˆู†ูŽูƒูŽ ูƒูŽุฃูŽู†ูŽู‘ูƒูŽ ุญูŽูููŠูŒู‘ ุนูŽู†ู’ู‡ูŽุง ู‚ูู„ู’ ุฅูู†ูŽู‘ู…ูŽุง ุนูู„ู’ู…ูู‡ูŽุง ุนูู†ุฏูŽ ุงู„ู„ู‘ู‡ู ูˆูŽู„ูŽู€ูƒูู†ูŽู‘ ุฃูŽูƒู’ุซูŽุฑูŽ ุงู„ู†ูŽู‘ุงุณู ู„ุงูŽ ูŠูŽุนู’ู„ูŽู…ููˆู†ูŽ)(ุงู„ุฃุนุฑุงู:187).

    -ูˆูŠุชุฎูŠู‘ู„ ุงู„ุนู„ู…ุงุก ุจู†ุธุฑูŠุงุชู‡ู… ุจุฃู†ู‘ู‡ุง ุฅุฑุงุฏุฉ ุงู„ุทุจูŠุนุฉ ุŒ ูˆุจุฃู†ู‘ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ุณูŠู‚ุฑู‘ุฑ ูˆู‚ุช ุถุฑุฑู‡ ุจุนู‚ู„ู‡ ุงู„ุฎุงุต ูˆู…ุดูŠุฆุชู‡ ุงู„ุฎุงุตุฉ.

    5-ุงู„ุฎุงุชู…ุฉ

    - ู†ุญู† ู†ุณู…ูˆ ุจุฅุญุฏู‰ ุงู„ู†ุธุฑูŠุงุช ุงู„ู…ุทุฑูˆุญุฉ -ู„ุชูุณูŠุฑ ุฎู„ู‚ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ูˆู†ู‡ุงูŠุชู‡- ุฅู„ู‰ ู…ู‚ุงู… ุงู„ุญู‚ูŠู‚ุฉ ู„ู…ุฌุฑุฏ ูˆุฌูˆุฏ ุฅุดุงุฑุฉ ู„ู‡ุง ููŠ ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุŒ ุฃูˆ ููŠ ุญุฏูŠุซ ุตุญูŠุญ ู…ุฑูˆูŠ ุนู† ุฑุณูˆู„ ุงู„ู„ู‡ (ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุณู„ู…) ุ› ูˆู†ูƒูˆู† ุจุฐู„ูƒ ู‚ุฏ ุงู†ุชุตุฑู†ุง ุจุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู† ุŒ ุฃูˆ ุจุงู„ุณู†ุฉ ุงู„ู†ุจูˆูŠุฉ ู„ู„ุนู„ู… ุŒ ูˆู„ูŠุณ ุงู„ุนูƒุณ .
    - ูˆุนู„ู‰ ุฃูŠุฉ ุญุงู„ ุŒ ูุฅู† ุฃูŠู‘ ุดุฎุต ุจุงู„ุนู‚ู„ ุงู„ุฐูƒูŠ ูˆุงู„ู‚ู„ุจ ุงู„ุณู„ูŠู… ุณูŠูู‡ู… ู…ุซู„ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ูƒู„ู…ุงุช ุงู„ุฎุงู„ุฏุฉ ุ› ูƒุฅุนู„ุงู† ู„ุนุจุงุฏุฉ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ู‰ ู†ุญูˆ ู…ุณุชู‚ูŠู… ุŒ ูƒู…ุง ููŠ ุงู„ุขูŠุฉ ุฑู‚ู… (106) ู…ู† ุณูˆุฑุฉ ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก ูŠู‚ูˆู„ ุงู„ู„ู‡- ุชุนุงู„ู‰- :
    (ุฅูู†ูŽู‘ ูููŠ ู‡ูŽุฐูŽุง ู„ูŽุจูŽู„ูŽุงุบุงู‹ ู„ูู‘ู‚ูŽูˆู’ู…ู ุนูŽุงุจูุฏููŠู†ูŽ…..ูˆูŽู…ูŽุง ุฃูŽุฑู’ุณูŽู„ู’ู†ูŽุงูƒูŽ ุฅูู„ูŽู‘ุง ุฑูŽุญู’ู…ูŽุฉู‹ ู„ูู‘ู„ู’ุนูŽุงู„ูŽู…ููŠู†ูŽ ) (ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก:106-107).

    - ูู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู…ุงุฏุฉ ู„ูŠุณุช ู„ู„ู…ุญุงูƒู…ุฉ ุฃูˆ ู„ุชู‚ุฏูŠู… ุชูุณูŠุฑ ู„ุขูŠุงุช ุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู† ุงู„ูƒุฑูŠู… ุŒ ู„ุฃู†ู‡ ู„ุง ุฃุญุฏ ูŠู…ูƒู† ุฃู† ูŠุตู„ ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ุชุฃูˆูŠู„ ุงู„ุฃู…ุซู„
    ู„ุฃูŠ ู…ู† ุงู„ุขูŠุงุช ุ› ูู„ุฏูŠู†ุง ุงู„ูƒุซูŠุฑ ุฌุฏุงู‹ ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ุนุงุฑู ุŒ ูˆู…ุงุฒู„ู†ุง ู„ู… ู†ุชูˆุตู„ ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ูู‡ู… ุงู„ุญู‚ูŠู‚ูŠ ู„ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุขูŠุงุช ุŒ
    ูˆู„ุง ูŠุฒุงู„ ู‡ู†ุงูƒ ู‡ุงู…ุด ูˆุงุณุน ุ› ู„ุชูุณูŠุฑ ุงู„ุขุฎุฑูŠู† ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ู‡ู… ุฃูƒุซุฑ ุชุฎุตุตุงู‹ ูˆุบูŠุฑู‡ู… ู…ู…ู† ุณูŠุฃุชูŠ ุŒ
    ูˆู„ู…ุนุฑูุฉ ุงู„ู…ุฒูŠุฏ ุนู† ุฃุณุฑุงุฑ ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ู‚ุงู„ ุชุนุงู„ู‰ :
    (ุณูŽู†ูุฑููŠู‡ูู…ู’ ุขูŠูŽุงุชูู†ูŽุง ูููŠ ุงู„ู’ุขููŽุงู‚ู ูˆูŽูููŠ ุฃูŽู†ููุณูู‡ูู…ู’ ุญูŽุชูŽู‘ู‰ ูŠูŽุชูŽุจูŽูŠูŽู‘ู†ูŽ ู„ูŽู‡ูู…ู’ ุฃูŽู†ูŽู‘ู‡ู ุงู„ู’ุญูŽู‚ูู‘
    ุฃูŽูˆูŽู„ูŽู…ู’ ูŠูŽูƒู’ูู ุจูุฑูŽุจูู‘ูƒูŽ ุฃูŽู†ูŽู‘ู‡ู ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ูƒูู„ูู‘ ุดูŽูŠู’ุกู ุดูŽู‡ููŠุฏูŒ) ( ูุตู„ุช : 53 ).

    - ูˆุฃู‚ูˆู„ ููŠ ุงู„ู†ู‡ุงูŠุฉ ุฃู†ูŽู‘ ุงู„ุฏูŠู† ู„ูŠุณ ู…ุชุญุฌุฑุงู‹ ุจู„ ุฅู†ู‡ ู‚ู…ุฉ ุงู„ุชุทูˆุฑ ููŠ ูƒู„ ุนุตุฑ ูˆุฃูˆุงู† ูƒู…ุง ุชุจูŠู† ู„ู†ุง ุŒ ูˆู„ุง ุณุจูŠู„ ู„ู„ุนูŠุด ุจุฏูˆู†ู‡ ุ› ูู‡ูˆ ู…ู†ู‡ุฌ ุงู„ุฅู†ุณุงู† ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูŠุฏู„ู‡ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุฎูŠุฑ ุ› ูุงู„ุฏูŠู† ุงู„ุญูŠุงู‡ ุŒ ูˆูŠู†ุจุบูŠ ุนู„ูŠู†ุง ุฃู† ู†ุชุฑูƒ ุฅุชุจุงุน ุงู„ุบูŠุฑ ูˆุงู„ู‡ูˆู‰ ูˆุงู„ู…ูˆุถุฉ ุŒ ูˆู†ุจุญุซ ููŠ ูƒู„ ู‚ูˆู„ ู„ู„ู‡ ูˆู„ุฑุณูˆู„ู‡ ู„ู†ุชุจุนู‡ ุ› ู„ุฃู†ู‡ ู„ู† ูŠุตู„ุญ ุขุฎุฑ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุฃู…ุฉ ุฅู„ุง ุจู…ุง ุตู„ุญ ุฃูˆู„ู‡ุง ุŒ
    ูู‚ุงู„ ุชุนุงู„ู‰:(ูŠูŽุง ุฃูŽูŠูู‘ู‡ูŽุง ุงู„ูŽู‘ุฐููŠู†ูŽ ุขู…ูŽู†ููˆุงู’ ุงุณู’ุชูŽุฌููŠุจููˆุงู’ ู„ูู„ู‘ู‡ู ูˆูŽู„ูู„ุฑูŽู‘ุณููˆู„ู ุฅูุฐูŽุง ุฏูŽุนูŽุงูƒูู…
    ู„ูู…ูŽุง ูŠูุญู’ูŠููŠูƒูู…ู’ ูˆูŽุงุนู’ู„ูŽู…ููˆุงู’ ุฃูŽู†ูŽู‘ ุงู„ู„ู‘ู‡ูŽ ูŠูŽุญููˆู„ู ุจูŽูŠู’ู†ูŽ ุงู„ู’ู…ูŽุฑู’ุกู ูˆูŽู‚ูŽู„ู’ุจูู‡ู
    ูˆูŽุฃูŽู†ูŽู‘ู‡ู ุฅูู„ูŽูŠู’ู‡ู ุชูุญู’ุดูŽุฑููˆู†ูŽ) (ุงู„ุฃู†ูุงู„ : 24 ).
    …………………………………………
    …………………………………..

    ุฃุตู„ ุงู„ู…ุฌุงู„ ุงู„ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณูŠ ุงู„ุฃุฑุถูŠ

    ู„ุง ูŠูˆุฌุฏ ู…ุง ู‡ูˆ ุฃูƒุซุฑ ุบู…ูˆุถุง ู…ู† ู…ุฌุงู„ ุงู„ุงุฑุถ ุงู„ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณูŠ, ุญุชู‰ ุงู„ุจุฑุช ุฃูŠู†ุดุชูŠู† ุงุนุชุจุฑู‡ ู…ู† ุฃูƒุซุฑ ุงู„ุฃู„ุบุงุฒ ุบู…ูˆุถุง ููŠ ุงู„ููŠุฒูŠุงุก.

    ู‚ุจู„ ุฃูƒุซุฑ ู…ู† 1000 ุณู†ู‡ ุงูƒุชุดู ุงู„ุตูŠู†ูŠูˆู† ุงู†ู‡ ุงุฐุง ูˆุถุนู†ุง ุดุธูŠู‡ ุฑููŠุนู‡ ู…ู† ุญุฌุฑ ู…ุง ููŠ ูˆุนุงุก ูŠุทููˆ ุนู„ู‰ ุณุทุญ ุงู„ู…ุงุก ูุฃู†ู‡ ุณูŠุชุบูŠุฑ ุงุชุฌุงู‡ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุดุธูŠู‡ ูˆ ุฏุงุฆู…ุง ู…ุง ุชุชู…ูˆุถุน ุจุงุชุฌุงู‡ ู…ุนูŠู†, ุณู…ูŠ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุญุฌุฑ ููŠู…ุง ุจุนุฏ ุงู„ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณ ูˆ ู…ู† ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุงูƒุชุดุงู ุงุฎุชุฑุนุช ุงู„ุจูˆุตู„ู‡, ููŠ ุนุงู… 1600 ู†ุดุฑ William Gilbert ุจุญุซุง ุจุนู†ูˆุงู† De Magnete, ู…ุนุชู…ุฏุง ุนู„ู‰ ู‚ูŠุงุณุงุชู‡ ู„ู„ู…ุฌุงู„ ุงู„ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณูŠ ุงู„ุงุฑุถูŠ ุญูˆู„ ุงู„ูƒุฑู‡ ุงู„ุงุฑุถูŠู‡ ูˆ ุจูŠู† ููŠู‡ ุงู† ุงู„ูƒุฑู‡ ุงู„ุงุฑุถูŠู‡ ู…ุซู„ ุงู„ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณ ุงู„ูƒุจูŠุฑ ุนูˆุถุง ุนู† ุงู„ููƒุฑู‡ ุงู„ุชูŠ ูƒุงู†ุช ุณุงุฆุฏู‡ ููŠ ุฐู„ูƒ ุงู„ุฒู…ุงู† ุง=ุฃู† ุงู„ู…ุฌุงู„ ุงู„ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณูŠ ุงู„ุงุฑุถูŠ ูŠุณุจุจู‡ ุดูŠุก ุฎุงุฑุฌ ุงู„ุงุฑุถ ูˆ ููŠ ุนุงู… 1838 ุงุซุจุช ุบุงูˆุณ ุงู† ู…ุตุฏุฑ ุงู„ู…ุฌุงู„ ุงู„ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณูŠ ุงู„ุงุฑุถูŠ ูŠู‚ุน ุงู…ุง ููŠ ู…ุฑูƒุฒ ุงู„ุงุฑุถ ุงูˆ ุจุงู„ู‚ุฑุจ ู…ู†ู‡

    ุชุชุตุฑู ุงู„ุงุฑุถ ูƒู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณ ุนู…ู„ุงู‚ ูŠู…ุชุฏ ุญุชู‰ ุงู„ูุถุงุก ุงู„ุฎุงุฑุฌูŠ ุญูˆู„ู‡ุง ุญุงู…ูŠุง ุงู„ุงุฑุถ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฌุณูŠู…ุงุช ุงู„ู…ุดุญูˆู†ู‡ ุงู„ู‚ุงุฏู…ู‡ ู…ู† ุงู„ูุถุงุก ุงู„ุฎุงุฑุฌูŠ ุงูˆ ุงู„ุฑูŠุงุญ ุงู„ุดู…ุณูŠุฉ ูˆ ู„ูƒู† ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ู…ุฌุงู„ ุงู„ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณูŠ ุบูŠุฑ ู…ู†ุชุธู… ูˆ ุบูŠุฑ ุซุงุจุช ุจุงู„ู‚ูŠู…ู‡ ูˆ ุจุงู„ุงุชุฌุงู‡ ูƒู…ุง ุชุจูŠู†ู‡ ุงู„ุตูˆุฑู‡ ุงู„ุชุงู„ูŠู‡, ูˆ ุงู„ุณุจุจ ุงู† ุงู„ุงุฑุถ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฏุงุฎู„ ู‡ูŠ ุญุงุฑุฉ ุจู…ุง ูŠูƒููŠ ู„ูŠุชุดูƒู„ ุงู„ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณ (ุฏุฑุฌู‡ ุงู„ุญุฑุงุฑู‡ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชูู‚ุฏ ุงู„ู…ุงุฏู‡ ุนู†ุฏู‡ุง ุฎุตุงุฆุตุง ุงู„ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณูŠู‡ ุชุณู…ู‰ ุฏุฑุฌู‡ ูƒูˆุฑูŠ) ู„ุฐู„ูƒ ูŠุฌุจ ุงู† ูŠุชู… ุชุฒูˆูŠุฏ ุงู„ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณ ุงู„ุงุฑุถูŠ ุจุงู„ุทุงู‚ู‡ ุจุดูƒู„ ู…ุณุชู…ุฑ ูˆ ุฅู„ุง ุณุชูู‚ุฏ ุงู„ุงุฑุถ ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณูŠุชู‡ุง ูˆ ุณุชุตุจุญ ุนุฑุถุฉ ู„ู„ุฑูŠุงุญ ุงู„ุดู…ุณูŠู‡, ู„ุฐู„ูƒ ูŠุฌุจ ุงู† ูŠูˆุฌุฏ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ู…ุตุฏุฑ ู„ู„ุทุงู‚ู‡ ุจุงู„ู‚ุฑุจ ู…ู† ู…ุฑูƒุฒ ุงู„ุฃุฑุถ ุญูŠุซ ู…ุณุจุจ ุงู„ู…ุฌุงู„ ุงู„ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณูŠ.

    ููŠ ุนุงู… 1919 ุงู‚ุชุฑุญ Larmor ุฃู† ุงู„ู…ุฌุงู„ ุงู„ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณูŠ ุงู„ุดู…ุณูŠ ูŠู…ูƒู† ุงู† ูŠุจู‚ู‰ ู…ุณุชู…ุฑุง ุนู„ู‰ ุทูˆู„ ุงู„ุฒู…ู† ุจุณุจุจ ุนู…ู„ูŠู‡ ู…ูŠูƒุงู†ูŠูƒูŠู‡ ุชุดู…ู„ ู…ูˆู„ุฏุง ุฐุงุชูŠุง ู„ู„ู…ุฌุงู„. Elsasserูˆ Bullard ุชุจู†ูˆ ุงู„ููƒุฑู‡ ูˆ ุทุจู‚ูˆู‡ุง ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ู…ุฌุงู„ ุงู„ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณูŠ ุงู„ุฃุฑุถูŠ ุญูŠุซ ุงู† ุงู„ู…ุฌุงู„ ุงู„ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณูŠ ุงู„ุงุฑุถูŠ ูŠู†ุชุฌ ู…ู† ู…ูˆู„ุฏ ุฐุงุชูŠ ู…ูˆุฌูˆุฏ ููŠ ู„ุจ ุงู„ุงุฑุถ ุงู„ุณุงุฆู„.

    ูŠุนู…ู„ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ู…ูˆู„ุฏ ุงูŠุถุง ุนู„ู‰ ุชุถุฎูŠู… ุงู„ู…ุฌุงู„ ุงู„ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณูŠ, ูˆ ู…ู†ุฐ ุนุงู… 1939 ุงุนุชู‚ุฏ ุงู† ุงู„ู…ุฌุงู„ ุงู„ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณูŠ ุงู„ุงุฑุถูŠ ูŠู†ุดุฃ ุจุณุจุจ ุชูŠุงุฑุงุช ุงู„ุญู…ู„ ุงู„ู…ูˆุฌูˆุฏู‡ ููŠ ู„ูŠ ุงู„ุฃุฑุถ ุงู„ุณุงุฆู„ ุญูŠุซ ุงู† ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุณุงุฆู„ ุจุทุจูŠุนุชู‡ ู…ูˆุตู„ ู„ู„ุชูŠุงุฑ ุงู„ูƒู‡ุฑุจุงุฆูŠ.

    ุฅู† ููƒุฑู‡ ุชูŠุงุฑุงุช ุงู„ุญู…ู„ ูˆ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชุชูุงุนู„ ู…ุน ู‚ูˆู‰ ูƒูˆุฑูˆู„ูŠูˆุณ ุงู„ู†ุงุชุฌู‡ ู…ู† ุฏูˆุฑุงู† ุงู„ุงุฑุถ ุญูˆู„ ู†ูุณู‡ุง ุชุนู…ู„ ูƒู…ูˆู„ุฏ ูˆ ู…ุถุฎู… ู„ู„ู…ุฌุงู„ ุงู„ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณูŠ, ุชุจุฏูˆ ุงู„ููƒุฑู‡ ู…ู†ุทู‚ูŠู‡ ู„ู„ุงู† ุญูŠุซ ุงู†ู‡ุง ุชูุณุฑ ูˆุฌูˆุฏ ุงู„ู…ุฌุงู„ ุงู„ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณูŠ ุงู„ุงุฑุถูŠ, ูˆ ู„ูƒู† ู‡ู„ ุชูŠุงุฑุงุช ุงู„ุญู…ู„ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุณุชุณุชู…ุฑ ุจุงู„ุญุฑูƒู‡! ูˆ ุชูˆู„ูŠุฏ ุงู„ู…ุฌุงู„ ุงู„ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณูŠ.

    ุงุจุณุท ู…ูู‡ูˆู… ู„ุชูŠุงุฑุงุช ุงู„ุญู…ู„ ุญุณุจ Chandrasekhar: ุชู†ุดุง ุชูŠุงุฑุง ุช ุงู„ุญู…ู„ ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ูŠุชู… ุชุณุฎูŠู† ุทุจู‚ู‡ ุฑู‚ูŠู‚ู‡ ู…ู† ุงู„ุณุงุฆู„ ู…ู† ุงู„ุงุณูู„ ุจูˆุฌูˆุฏ ุชุฏุฑุฌ ุจุฏุฑุฌุงุช ุงู„ุญุฑุงุฑู‡ ุงูˆ ูุฑู‚ ุจุฏุฑุฌุงุช ุงู„ุญุฑุงุฑู‡ ุจูŠู† ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุทุจู‚ู‡ ูˆ ุงู„ุทุจู‚ู‡ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชู„ูŠู‡ุง ุญูŠุซ ุชุตุจุญ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุทุจู‚ู‡ ุงู‚ู„ ูƒุซุงูุชุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ุทุจู‚ุงุช ุงู„ุชูŠ ููˆู‚ู‡ุง ูˆ ุชุตุนุฏ ุงู„ู‰ ุงุนู„ู‰ ููˆู‚ ุฌู…ูŠุน ุงู„ุทุจู‚ุงุช ุงู„ู‰ ุงู† ุชุงุชูŠ ุทุจู‚ู‡ ุงุฎุฑู‰ ุชูƒูˆู† ุงู‚ู„ ูƒุซุงูุฉ ู…ู†ู‡ุง. ูŠู…ูŠู„ ุงู„ู…ุงุฆุน ุงู„ู‰ ุงู† ูŠุนูŠุฏ ุชุฑุชูŠุจ ู†ูุณู‡ ู„ูŠู‚ู„ู„ ู…ู† ุงู„ุงุฎุชู„ุงูุงุช ุงู„ุญุฑุงุฑูŠู‡ ุจูŠู† ุงุนู„ู‰ ุทุจู‚ู‡ ูˆ ุงุฏู†ู‰ ุทุจู‚ู‡ ูˆ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ุชู†ุดุฃ ุชูŠุงุฑุงุช ุงู„ุญู…ู„ ู„ุชุนูŠุฏ ุชูˆุฒูŠุน ุงู„ุญุฑุงุฑู‡ ููŠ ุฏุงุฎู„ ุงู„ู…ุงุฆุน .

    ุธู‡ุฑ ุงู„ุฏุฑุงุณุงุช ุงู† ู…ุฌุงู„ ุงู„ุงุฑุถ ุงู„ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณูŠ ู…ูˆุฌูˆุฏ ู…ู†ุฐ 3.5 ุจู„ูŠูˆู† ุณู†ู‡ ูˆ ู‡ูˆ ู…ุณุชู‚ุฑ ู„ูุชุฑุฉ ุทูˆูŠู„ุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฒู…ู† ุงุฐุง ุชุฌุงู‡ู„ู†ุง ุงู„ุงู†ุนูƒุงุณุงุช ูˆ ุนูƒุณ ุงู„ุงู‚ุทุงุจ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชุญุฏุซ ููŠู‡, ูˆ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูุฅู† ุงู„ู…ุงุฆุน ุงู„ุงุฑุถูŠ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูŠู†ุดูŠุก ุงู„ู…ุฌุงู„ ุงู„ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณูŠ ุจุณุจุจ ุชูŠุงุฑุงุช ุงู„ุญู…ู„ ุงู„ู†ุงุชุฌู‡ ููŠู‡ ูŠุฌุจ ุงู† ูŠูƒูˆู† ู…ุณุชู‚ุฑุง ูˆ ุซุงุจุชุง ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุงู‚ู„ ู„ูุชุฑุงุช ุฒู…ู†ูŠู‡ ุทูˆูŠู„ุฉ ูˆ ูŠุฌุจ ุงู† ุชุจู‚ู‰ ุชูŠุงุฑุงุช ุงู„ุญู…ู„ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชู†ุดุฃ ููŠ ู„ุจ ุงู„ุงุฑุถ ุงู„ุณุงุฆู„ ุซุงุจุชุฉ ุงู„ู‚ูŠู…ุฉ ูˆ ุงู„ุงุชุฌุงู‡!.
    ุงู„ุงู† ูŠุธู‡ุฑ ุงู„ุณุคุงู„ ุงู„ู…ู‡ู…: ู‡ู„ ูŠู…ูƒู† ุงู† ุชุจู‚ู‰ ูุนู„ุง ุชูŠุงุฑุงุช ุงู„ุญู…ู„ ู‡ุฐู‡ ู…ุณุชู‚ุฑู‡ ูˆ ุซุงุจุชู‡ ุจู…ุง ููŠู‡ ุงู„ูƒูุงูŠู‡ ู„ูุชุฑุงุช ุฒู…ู†ูŠู‡ ุทูˆูŠู„ู‡ ุชู…ูƒู†ู†ุง ู…ู† ุชุงุฑูŠุฎู‡ุง ุจุงุตุฎูˆุฑ ุงู„ู…ูˆุฌูˆุฏู‡ ููŠ ู‚ุนุฑ ุงู„ู…ุญูŠุทุŸ ูˆ ู‡ูˆ ุงู„ุณุคุงู„ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ุทุฑุญู‡ J. Marvin Herndon (ู‡ูˆ ุงู„ู…ุคู„ู ุงู„ุงุตู„ูŠ ู„ู„ู…ูˆุถูˆุน ุงูŠุถุง )
    ู„ูŠู†ุชุฌ ุชูŠุงุฑุงุช ุญู…ู„ ููŠ ู„ุจ ุงู„ุงุฑุถ ุงู„ุณุงุฆู„ ู„ูุชุฑุงุช ุฒู…ู†ูŠู‡ ุทูˆูŠู„ู‡ ูˆ ุชูƒูˆู† ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุชูŠุงุฑุงุช ู…ุณุชู‚ุฑู‡ ูุงู†ู‡ ูŠู„ุฒู… ูˆุฌูˆุฏ ุชุฏุฑุฌ ุซุงุจุช ูˆ ู…ุณุชู‚ุฑ ุจุฏุฑุฌุงุช ุงู„ุญุฑุงุฑู‡ ุจูŠู† ุงุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ุจ ุงู„ุณุงุฆู„ ูˆ ุงุฏู†ุงู‡ , ู„ุฐู„ูƒ ุฌุจ ุงูŠุฌุงุฏ ุทุฑูŠู‚ู‡ ู„ู†ูƒูŠ ู†ุจู‚ูŠ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ูุฑู‚ ููŠ ุฏุฑุฌุงุช ุงู„ุญุฑุงุฑู‡ ุจูŠู† ุงุนู„ู‰ ูˆ ุงุณูู„ ุงู„ู„ุจ ุงู„ุณุงุฆู„ ููŠ ุงู„ุงุฑุถ ูˆ ู‡ู†ุง ุชูƒู…ู† ุงู„ู…ุดูƒู„ู‡!

    ุงู† ู‚ู„ุจ ุงู„ุงุฑุถ ุงู„ุณุงุฆู„ ู…ุบู„ู ุจุจุทุงู†ู‡ ุนุงุฒู„ู‡ ู„ู„ุญุฑุงุฑู‡ ู‡ูŠ ุงู„ุณุชุงุฑ ุงู„ุตุฎุฑูŠ ุญูŠุซ ุณู…ูƒู‡ ุชู‚ุฑูŠุจุง 2900 ูƒู… ูˆู‡ูˆ ุณูŠุก ุงู„ุชูˆุตูŠู„ ู„ู„ุญุฑุงุฑู‡ ูˆ ุณุนุชู‡ ุงู„ุญุฑุงุฑูŠู‡ ู‚ู„ูŠู„ู‡, ู„ุฐู„ูƒ ูุงู† ูƒู…ูŠู‡ ุงู„ุญุฑุงุฑู‡ ุงู„ุชูŠ ูŠู†ู‚ู„ู‡ุง ุงู„ู„ุจ ุงู„ุณุงุฆู„ ุจูˆุงุณุทู‡ ุชูŠุงุฑุงุช ุงู„ุญู…ู„ ุงู„ู‰ ุงู„ุฌุฒุก ุงู„ุงุณูู„ ู…ู† ุงู„ุณุชุงุฑ ู„ู† ูŠุชู… ุชุจุฏูŠุฏู‡ุง ุจูุนุงู„ูŠู‡ ููŠ ุงู„ุบู„ุงู ุงู„ุตุฎุฑูŠ ูˆ ุงุฐุง ูุงู† ุชูŠุงุฑุงุช ุงู„ุญู…ู„ ุณูˆู ู„ู† ุชูƒูˆู† ู…ุณุชู‚ุฑู‡ ู†ู‡ุงุฆูŠุง ูˆ ู„ู† ุชุฏูˆู… ู„ูุชุฑุงุช ุทูˆูŠู„ู‡ ู„ูƒูŠ ุชู†ุชุฌ ู…ุฌุงู„ุง ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณูŠุง ุงุฑุถูŠุง ู…ุณุชู‚ุฑุง ู„ูุชุฑุงุช ุทูˆูŠู„ู‡. ู„ุญู„ ุงู„ู…ุดูƒู„ู‡ ูุฑุถ J. Marvin Herndon ููŠ ุนุงู… 1993 ูˆุฌูˆุฏ ุทุจู‚ู‡ ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ุงุฆุน ุงู„ุณุงุฆู„ ููŠ ู„ุจ ุงู„ุงุฑุถ ุงู„ุฏุงุฎู„ูŠ ูŠุฌุนู„ ุนู…ู„ูŠู‡ ุงู„ุชุจุงุฏู„ ุงู„ุญุฑุงุฑูŠ ู…ุณุชู…ุฑู‡ ู„ูุชุฑุงุช ุทูˆูŠู„ู‡ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฒู…ู† ู…ุนุชู…ุฏุง ุนู„ู‰ ููƒุฑู‡ ูƒุงู† ู‚ุฏ ุทุฑุญู‡ุง ู…ู† ู‚ุจู„ ุชู‚ูˆู„ ุจูˆุฌูˆุฏ ู…ูุงุนู„ ู†ูˆูˆูŠ ุงุฑุถูŠ GeoReactor ูŠุนู…ู„ ุนู„ู‰ ุชูˆู„ูŠุฏ ุงู„ุญุฑุงุฑู‡ ููŠ ู„ุจ ุงู„ุงุฑุถ ูˆ ูŠุนู…ู„ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู…ูุงุนู„ ูƒู…ุฒูˆุฏ ู„ู„ุทุงู‚ู‡ ู„ู„ู†ุธุงู… ุงู„ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณูŠ ุงู„ุงุฑุถูŠ ุงูˆ ู„ู„ุงู„ูŠุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ูŠุชูˆู„ุฏ ุจู‡ุง ุงู„ู…ุฌุงู„ ุงู„ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณูŠ ุงู„ุงุฑุถูŠ.
    ููŠ ุนุงู… 1996 ู†ุดุฑ J. Marvin Herndon ุจุญุซุง ููŠ ุงู„ู…ุฌู„ู‡ ุงู„ุนู„ู…ูŠุฉ ุงู„ุงู…ุฑูŠูƒูŠู‡ ูŠุตู ููŠู‡ ุงู† ุงู„ู…ูุงุนู„ ุงู„ู†ูˆูˆูŠ ุงู„ุงุฑุถูŠ ูŠุชูƒูˆู† ู…ู† ู‚ู„ุจ ู…ู† ุงู„ูŠูˆุฑุงู†ูŠูˆู… ู…ุญุงุทุง ุจุบู„ุงู ู…ู† ู†ูˆุงุชุฌ ุงู„ุงู†ุชุดุงุฑ ูˆ ุจู‚ุงูŠุง ุชุญู„ู„ ุงู„ู…ูˆุงุฏ ุงู„ู…ุดุนู‡ ูƒู…ุง ุชุจูŠู† ุงู„ุตูˆุฑู‡ ุงู„ุชุงู„ูŠู‡

    ููŠ ุนุงู… 2007 ู‚ุฏู… J. Marvin Herndon ุฏู„ูŠู„ุง ุนู„ู‰ ุงู† ุงู„ุบู„ุงู ุงู„ู…ุญูŠุท ุจุงู„ูŠูˆุฑุงู†ูŠูˆู… ู‡ูˆ ู…ุงุฆุน ูˆ ุงุนุทู‰ ุชูุณูŠุฑุง ุฌุฏูŠุฏุง ู„ู†ุดุฆุฉ ุงู„ู…ุฌุงู„ ุงู„ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณูŠ ุงู„ุงุฑุถูŠ ุญูŠุซ ุงู† ู…ูˆู„ุฏ ุงู„ู…ุฌุงู„ ุงู„ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณูŠ ุงู„ุงุฑุถูŠ ูŠูƒูˆู† ุจุฏุงุฎู„ ุงู„ู…ูุงุนู„ ุงู„ู†ูˆูˆูŠ ุงู„ุงุฑุถูŠ ุญูŠุซ ูŠู…ูƒู† ู„ู„ุญุฑุงุฑู‡ ุงู„ู…ุชูˆู„ุฏู‡ ุฏุงุฎู„ ู‚ู„ุจ ุงู„ู…ูุงุนู„ ุงู„ู†ู†ูˆูŠ ุงู„ุงุฑุถูŠ ุงู† ุชู†ุชู‚ู„ ุงู„ู‰ ุงู„ุณุงุฆู„ ุงู„ู…ุญูŠุท ุจู‡ ุซู… ุณุชุตู„ ุงู„ู‰ ู…ูˆุตู„ ุฌูŠุฏ ู„ู„ุญุฑุงุฑู‡ ู‡ูˆ ู„ุจ ุงู„ุงุฑุถ ุงู„ุณุงุฆู„ ุญูŠุซ ุชู†ุชู‚ู„ ุจู‡ ุงู„ุญุฑุงุฑู‡, ุงู† ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุงู„ูŠู‡ ุชุถู…ู† ูˆุฌูˆุฏ ุชูŠุงุฑุงุช ุญู…ู„ ุซุงุจุชู‡ ูˆ ู…ุณุชู‚ุฑู‡ ู„ูุชุฑุงุช ุทูˆูŠู„ู‡ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฒู…ู† ุงู„ุงู…ุฑ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูŠุถู…ู† ุงู†ุชู‚ุงู„ ุงู„ุญุฑุงุฑู‡

    ูˆ ูŠู†ุดุฃ ุงู„ู…ุฌุงู„ ุงู„ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณูŠ ุงู„ุงุฑุถูŠ ุจู†ูุณ ุงู„ุงู„ูŠู‡ ุงู„ู†ุงุชุฌู‡ ุนู† ุชุงุซูŠุฑ ุฏูˆุฑุงู† ุงู„ุงุฑุถ ูˆ ู‚ูˆู‰ ูƒูˆุฑูˆู„ูŠูˆุณ

    ูƒู…ุง ู‡ูˆ ู…ุจูŠู† ุจุงู„ุตูˆุฑู‡.
    ูˆ ุงู„ู…ูู‡ูˆู… ุงู„ุฐูŠ ุทุฑุญู‡ J. Marvin Herndon ูŠู†ุทุจู‚ ุนู„ู‰ ู…ุฌู…ูˆุนู‡ ุงู„ูƒูˆุงูƒุจ ุงู„ุชูŠ ู„ู‡ุง ู…ุฌุงู„ ู…ุบู†ุงุทูŠุณูŠ ุฎุงุต ุจู‡ุง.

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    ุงู„ุณูุฑ ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠ ุจูŠู† ุงู„ุนู„ู… ูˆุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู†

    ููŠ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุงู„ุฉ ู†ุชุนุฑู ุนู„ู‰ ุญู‚ูŠู‚ุฉ ู…ู‡ู…ุฉ ููŠ ุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู† ูˆู‡ูŠ ุฃู† ูƒู„ ูˆุงุญุฏ ู…ู†ุง ุณูŠุฑู‰ ุฃุนู…ุงู„ู‡ ูŠูˆู… ุงู„ู‚ูŠุงู…ุฉ ุญุงุถุฑุฉุŒ ูˆู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุญู‚ูŠู‚ุฉ ู‚ุฏ ุฃู†ูƒุฑู‡ุง ุงู„ู…ู„ุญุฏูˆู† ู…ู† ู‚ุจู„ุŒ ูˆุณูˆู ู†ุฑู‰ ูƒูŠู ูŠุฃุชูŠ ุงู„ุนู„ู… ุงู„ุญุฏูŠุซ ู„ูŠุคูƒุฏ ุฅู…ูƒุงู†ูŠุฉ ุฑุคูŠุฉ ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠ ูˆู„ูƒู† ู„ุง ูŠู…ูƒู† ุชุบูŠูŠุฑู‡…..

    ู…ุง ุฃูƒุซุฑ ุงู„ุงุนุชุฑุงุถุงุช ุงู„ุชูŠ ู‚ุฏู…ู‡ุง ุงู„ู…ุดุฑูƒูˆู† ูˆุฃู†ูƒุฑูˆุง ู…ู† ุฎู„ุงู„ู‡ุง ูŠูˆู… ุงู„ู‚ูŠุงู…ุฉ ูˆู„ู… ูŠุชุฎูŠู„ูˆุง ูƒูŠู ุณูŠุจุนุซู‡ู… ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุจุนุฏ ุฃู† ุฃุตุจุญูˆุง ุชุฑุงุจุงู‹ุŒ ูˆู„ู… ูŠุชุฎูŠู„ูˆุง ูƒูŠู ุณูŠุญุงุณุจู‡ู… ุนู„ู‰ ุฃุนู…ุงู„ู‡ู…ุŒ ุจู„ ูƒูŠู ุณูŠุฑูˆู† ุฃุนู…ุงู„ู‡ู…!
    ุฅู† ุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู† ุงู„ูƒุฑูŠู… ู‡ูˆ ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ุญู‚ุงุฆู‚ุŒ ููƒู„ ุขูŠุฉ ู…ู† ุขูŠุงุชู‡ ุชุชุถู…ู† ุญู‚ูŠู‚ุฉ ุนู„ู…ูŠุฉ ู„ุง ุจุฏู‘ ุฃู† ู†ูƒุชุดูู‡ุง ุจุดุฑุท ุฃู† ู†ุชุฏุจุฑู‡ุง ูˆู†ุชุฃู…ู„ู‡ุง ูˆู†ุชููƒุฑ ููŠู‡ุง. ูˆู…ู† ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุขูŠุงุช ู‚ูˆู„ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰ (ูˆูŽูˆูุถูุนูŽ ุงู„ู’ูƒูุชูŽุงุจู ููŽุชูŽุฑูŽู‰ ุงู„ู’ู…ูุฌู’ุฑูู…ููŠู†ูŽ ู…ูุดู’ููู‚ููŠู†ูŽ ู…ูู…ูŽู‘ุง ูููŠู‡ู ูˆูŽูŠูŽู‚ููˆู„ููˆู†ูŽ ูŠูŽุง ูˆูŽูŠู’ู„ูŽุชูŽู†ูŽุง ู…ูŽุงู„ู ู‡ูŽุฐูŽุง ุงู„ู’ูƒูุชูŽุงุจู ู„ูŽุง ูŠูุบูŽุงุฏูุฑู ุตูŽุบููŠุฑูŽุฉู‹ ูˆูŽู„ูŽุง ูƒูŽุจููŠุฑูŽุฉู‹ ุฅูู„ูŽู‘ุง ุฃูŽุญู’ุตูŽุงู‡ูŽุง ูˆูŽูˆูŽุฌูŽุฏููˆุง ู…ูŽุง ุนูŽู…ูู„ููˆุง ุญูŽุงุถูุฑู‹ุง ูˆูŽู„ูŽุง ูŠูŽุธู’ู„ูู…ู ุฑูŽุจูู‘ูƒูŽ ุฃูŽุญูŽุฏู‹ุง) [ุงู„ูƒู‡ู: 49].
    ุฅู† ุงู„ุฐูŠ ู„ูุช ุงู†ุชุจุงู‡ูŠ ุฃู† ุงู„ุขูŠุฉ ุชุชุญุฏุซ ุนู† ูŠูˆู… ุงู„ู‚ูŠุงู…ุฉุŒ ุฃูŠ ุนู† ุญุฏุซ ุณูŠู‚ุน ููŠ ุงู„ู…ุณุชู‚ุจู„ุŒ ูˆู…ุน ุฐู„ูƒ ู†ุฌุฏ ุฃู† ุตูŠุบุฉ ุงู„ุฃูุนุงู„ ุฌุงุกุช ููŠ ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠ!!! (ูˆูŽูˆูุถูุนูŽ ุงู„ู’ูƒูุชูŽุงุจู) ุŒ (ูˆูŽูˆูŽุฌูŽุฏููˆุง ู…ูŽุง ุนูŽู…ูู„ููˆุง ุญูŽุงุถูุฑู‹ุง)ุŒ ูู‡ุฐู‡ ุฃูุนุงู„ ุชู…ุช ููŠ ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠ ู…ุน ุฃู† ุงู„ุญุฏูŠุซ ุนู† ูŠูˆู… ุงู„ู‚ูŠุงู…ุฉุŒ ูู…ุง ู‡ูˆ ุงู„ุณุฑุŸ
    ุจุนุฏ ุชููƒูŠุฑ ุทูˆูŠู„ ูˆุฌุฏุชู ุจุฃู† ุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู† ู‡ูˆ ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ุญู‚ุงุฆู‚ ุงู„ู…ุทู„ู‚ุฉุŒ ูˆู„ุฐู„ูƒ ูู‡ูˆ ูŠุชุญุฏุซ ุนู† ุฃุดูŠุงุก ู…ุทู„ู‚ุฉุŒ ูุงู„ุฒู…ู† ุจุงู„ู†ุณุจุฉ ู„ู†ุง ู†ุญู† ุงู„ุจุดุฑ ูŠู†ู‚ุณู… ุฅู„ู‰ ู…ุงุถ ูˆู…ุณุชู‚ุจู„ุŒ ุฃู…ุง ุจุงู„ู†ุณุจุฉ ู„ู„ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰ ูˆู‡ูˆ ุฎุงู„ู‚ ุงู„ุฒู…ู† ูู„ุง ูˆุฌูˆุฏ ู„ู„ู…ุงุถูŠ ุฃูˆ ุงู„ู…ุณุชู‚ุจู„ุŒ ุจู„ ุฅู† ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰ ูŠุฑู‰ ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠ ูˆุงู„ู…ุณุชู‚ุจู„ุŒ ูƒูŠู ู„ุง ูŠุฑุงู‡ู…ุง ูˆู‡ูˆ ุฎุงู„ู‚ู‡ู…ุงุŸ

    ูˆู„ุฐู„ูƒ ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ูŠู‚ูˆู„ ุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู† (ูˆูŽูˆูุถูุนูŽ ุงู„ู’ูƒูุชูŽุงุจู) ูู‡ุฐุง ูŠุนู†ูŠ ุฃู† ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุฃู…ุฑ ู‚ุฏ ูˆู‚ุน ูุนู„ุงู‹ ูˆู„ูƒู†ู†ุง ู„ู… ู†ุนุด ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู„ุญุธุงุช ุจุนุฏุŒ ูˆุนู†ุฏู…ุง ูŠู‚ูˆู„ ุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู† (ูˆูŽูˆูŽุฌูŽุฏููˆุง ู…ูŽุง ุนูŽู…ูู„ููˆุง ุญูŽุงุถูุฑู‹ุง) ูู‡ุฐุง ูŠุนู†ูŠ ุฃู† ุงู„ูƒุงูุฑ ุณูŠุนูŠุด ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู„ุญุธุงุช ุจู„ ู‡ูˆ ู‚ุฏ ุนุงุดู‡ุงุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู†ู‡ ู„ุง ูŠุนู„ู… ุฐู„ูƒ!

    ูˆุงู„ุณุคุงู„: ู‡ู„ ูŠูˆุฌุฏ ุฅุซุจุงุช ุนู„ู…ูŠ ุนู„ู‰ ุตุฏู‚ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ูƒู„ุงู…ุŸ

    ูŠุชุญุฏุซ ุงู„ุนู„ู…ุงุก ุงู„ูŠูˆู… ุนู† ุฅู…ูƒุงู†ูŠุฉ ุงู„ุณูุฑ ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠ! ูุงู„ู†ุธุฑูŠุฉ ุงู„ู†ุณุจูŠุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ูˆุถุนู‡ุง ุขูŠู†ุดุชุงูŠู† ููŠ ู…ุทู„ุน ุงู„ู‚ุฑู† ุงู„ุนุดุฑูŠู† ุชุคูƒุฏ ุจุฃู† ุงู„ุฒู…ู† ู„ุง ูŠุณูŠุฑ ุจู„ู…ุญ ุงู„ุจุตุฑ ุฅู†ู…ุง ูŠุณูŠุฑ ุจุณุฑุนุฉ ูƒูˆู†ูŠุฉ ู‡ูŠ ุณุฑุนุฉ ุงู„ุถูˆุกุŒ ูˆู‡ูŠ 300 ุฃู„ู ูƒูŠู„ูˆ ู…ุชุฑุงู‹ ููŠ ุงู„ุซุงู†ูŠุฉุŒ ูˆู‡ุฐู‡ ุฃู‚ุตู‰ ุณุฑุนุฉ ุญู‚ูŠู‚ูŠุฉ ูŠู…ูƒู† ุงู„ูˆุตูˆู„ ุฅู„ูŠู‡ุง.
    ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ุชุตู„ ุณุฑุนุฉ ุฃูŠ ุฌุณู… ุฅู„ู‰ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุณุฑุนุฉ ุงู„ูƒูˆู†ูŠุฉ ุณูˆู ูŠุชูˆู‚ู ุนู†ุฏู‡ุง ุงู„ุฒู…ู†ุŒ ุฃูŠ ุฃู†ู†ุง ู†ุนูŠุด ุงู„ู„ุญุธุฉ ุงู„ุญุงุถุฑุฉ ูู‚ุทุŒ ูู„ุง ู†ุฑู‰ ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠ ูˆู„ุง ุงู„ู…ุณุชู‚ุจู„. ูˆู„ูƒู† ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ู†ุณูŠุฑ ุจุณุฑุนุฉ ุฃูƒุจุฑ ู…ู† ุณุฑุนุฉ ุงู„ุถูˆุก ูุฅู†ู†ุง ู†ุณุชุทูŠุน ุฑุคูŠุฉ ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠุŒ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ู…ุง ูŠุคูƒุฏู‡ ุงู„ุนู„ู…ุงุก ุงู„ูŠูˆู….
    ูˆู„ุฐู„ูƒ ูŠู…ูƒู† ู„ู„ุฅู†ุณุงู† ุฃู† ูŠุฑู‰ ุฃุนู…ุงู„ู‡ ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠุฉ ูˆู„ูƒู†ู‡ ู„ุง ูŠุณุชุทูŠุน ุฃู† ูŠุบูŠุฑู‡ุง! ูˆุณุจุญุงู† ุงู„ู„ู‡! ูŠุฃุชูŠ ุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู† ู„ูŠุชุญุฏุซ ุจูƒู„ ุฏู‚ุฉ ุนู† ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุญู‚ูŠู‚ุฉ ููŠู‚ูˆู„: (ูˆูŽูˆูŽุฌูŽุฏููˆุง ู…ูŽุง ุนูŽู…ูู„ููˆุง ุญูŽุงุถูุฑู‹ุง) ุฃูŠ ุฃู† ูƒู„ ุฅู†ุณุงู† ุณูˆู ูŠุฑู‰ ุฃุนู…ุงู„ู‡ ูˆูƒุฃู†ู‡ุง ุชุญุฏุซ ููŠ ุงู„ู„ุญุธุฉ ุงู„ุญุงุถุฑุฉุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู†ู‡ ู„ุง ูŠุณุชุทูŠุน ุฃู† ูŠุบูŠุฑู‡ุงุŒ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ู…ุง ูŠู‚ูˆู„ู‡ ุงู„ุนู„ู…ุงุก ุงู„ูŠูˆู… ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ูŠุชุญุฏุซูˆู† ุนู† ุงู„ุณูุฑ ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠุŒ ุจุฃู† ุงู„ุฅู†ุณุงู† ูŠุณุชุทูŠุน ุฃู† ูŠุฑู‰ ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠ ูˆู„ูƒู†ู‡ ู„ุง ูŠุณุชุทูŠุน ุฃู† ูŠุบูŠุฑู‡!

    ู…ุง ู‡ูŠ ุงู„ู†ุธุฑูŠุฉ ุงู„ู†ุณุจูŠุฉ

    ู…ุนุธู…ู†ุง ูŠุณู…ุน ุจุงู„ู†ุธุฑูŠุฉ ุงู„ู†ุณุจูŠุฉ ูˆู„ูƒู† ู‚ุฏ ู†ุฌุฏ ุนุฏุฏุงู‹ ูƒุจูŠุฑุงู‹ ู„ุง ูŠุนู„ู… ู…ุง ู‡ูŠ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู†ุธุฑูŠุฉุŸ ุจุงุฎุชุตุงุฑ ุดุฏูŠุฏ ุฅู† ูƒู„ ุดูŠุก ููŠ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ูƒูˆู† ู‡ูˆ ู†ุณุจูŠุŒ ูู†ุญู† ู…ุซู„ุงู‹ ู†ุนูŠุด ุนู„ู‰ ุฃุฑุถ ู†ุฑุงู‡ุง ุซุงุจุชุฉ ูˆู„ูƒู†ู‡ุง ููŠ ุงู„ุญู‚ูŠู‚ุฉ ุชุฏูˆุฑ ุจุณุฑุนุฉ ูƒุจูŠุฑุฉ ุญูˆู„ ู…ุญูˆุฑู‡ุงุŒ ูˆุชุฏูˆุฑ ุจุณุฑุนุฉ ุฃูƒุจุฑ ุญูˆู„ ุงู„ุดู…ุณ. ูˆุชู†ุฌุฑู ุจุณุฑุนุฉ ู…ุฐู‡ู„ุฉ ู…ุน ุงู„ู…ุฌู…ูˆุนุฉ ุงู„ุดู…ุณูŠุฉุŒ ูˆุงู„ู…ุฌู…ูˆุนุฉ ุงู„ุดู…ุณูŠุฉ ุจู…ุง ููŠู‡ุง ุงู„ุฃุฑุถ ูˆู†ุญู†ุŒ ุชุฌุฑูŠ ุจุณุฑุนุฉ ุนุงู„ูŠุฉ ู…ุน ุงู„ู…ุฌุฑุฉ ุจุงุชุฌุงู‡ ู…ุญุฏุฏ ู‚ุฏ ุฑุณู…ู‡ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ู„ู‡ุง. ูˆุงู„ู…ุฌุฑุฉ ุชุณูŠุฑ ุฃูŠุถุงู‹ ู…ุน ู…ุฌู…ูˆุนุฉ ุงู„ู…ุฌุฑุงุช ุงู„ู…ุญูŠุทุฉ ุจุณุฑุนุฉ ูƒุจูŠุฑุฉ…. ูˆู‡ูƒุฐุง ุนุฏุฏ ู…ู† ุงู„ุญุฑูƒุงุช ู„ุง ู†ุฏุฑูƒู‡ุง ูˆู„ุง ู†ุฑุงู‡ุงุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† ุงู„ุนู„ู… ูƒุดูู‡ุง ู„ู†ุง.
    ุฅุฐู† ู„ูŠุณ ู‡ู†ุงู„ูƒ ุดูŠุก ูŠู…ูƒู† ุฃู† ู†ู‚ูŠุณ ุงู„ุณุฑุนุฉ ุจุงู„ู†ุณุจุฉ ู„ู‡ุŒ ููƒู„ ุดูŠุก ูŠุชุญุฑูƒ ูˆูŠุณูŠุฑ ุจู…ุณุงุฑ ู…ุญุฏุฏ ูˆู…ุญุณูˆุจุŒ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ู…ุง ู†ุฌุฏ ุฅุดุงุฑุฉ ู‚ุฑุขู†ูŠุฉ ุนู†ู‡ ููŠ ู‚ูˆู„ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰: (ูƒูู„ูŒู‘ ูููŠ ููŽู„ูŽูƒู ูŠูŽุณู’ุจูŽุญููˆู†ูŽ) [ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก: 33].

    ุฅู† ุงู„ู‚ูˆุงู†ูŠู† ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชุญูƒู… ุญุฑูƒุฉ ุงู„ุฃุดูŠุงุก ุณูˆู ุชุชุบูŠุฑ ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ุชู‚ุชุฑุจ ุณุฑุนุชู‡ุง ู…ู† ุณุฑุนุฉ ุงู„ุถูˆุกุŒ ูˆุจุงู„ุชุงู„ูŠ ูุงู„ู‚ูˆุงู†ูŠู† ู†ุณุจูŠุฉ ุฃูŠุถุงู‹ ูˆุชุงุจุนุฉ ู„ุณุฑุนุฉ ุงู„ุฌุณู… ุงู„ู…ุชุญุฑูƒ. ูู„ูˆ ูุฑุถู†ุง ุฃู† ู…ุฑูƒุจุฉ ูุถุงุฆูŠุฉ ุชู…ูƒู†ุช ู…ู† ุงู„ุณูŠุฑ ุจุณุฑุนุฉ ู‚ุฑูŠุจุฉ ู…ู† ุณุฑุนุฉ ุงู„ุถูˆุก ูุฅู† ุฌู…ูŠุน ุงู„ู‚ูˆุงู†ูŠู† ุงู„ุชูŠ ู†ุนุฑูู‡ุง ุณุชุชุบูŠุฑุŒ ูˆุณูˆู ูŠุชุจุงุทุฃ ุงู„ุฒู…ู† ุญุชู‰ ุฅู† ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูŠุนูŠุด ููŠ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู…ุฑูƒุจุฉ ุณูŠุนูŠุด ุทูˆูŠู„ุงู‹ ู„ุขู„ุงู ุงู„ุณู†ูˆุงุช (ูˆู‡ุฐุง ุฎูŠุงู„ ุนู„ู…ูŠ ุทุจุนุงู‹).

    ู‡ู†ุงู„ูƒ ุฃู…ุฑ ู…ู‡ู… ููŠ ุงู„ู†ุธุฑูŠุฉ ุงู„ู†ุณุจูŠุฉ ูˆู‡ูˆ ุฃู† ุฃูŠ ุญุงุฏุซุฉ ุชุญุฏุซ ุงู„ุขู† ู„ุง ูŠู…ูƒู† ุฃู† ู†ุฑุงู‡ุง ุจู†ูุณ ุงู„ู„ุญุธุฉุŒ ุฅู†ู…ุง ุชุณุชุบุฑู‚ ุฒู…ู†ุงู‹ ูŠุชุนู„ู‚ ุจุจุนุฏู‡ุง ุนู†ุง. ูุฅุฐุง ุงู†ูุฌุฑ ู†ุฌู… ูŠุจุนุฏ ุนู† ุงู„ุฃุฑุถ ุฃู„ู ุณู†ุฉ ุถูˆุฆูŠุฉุŒ ุฅุฐุง ุงู†ูุฌุฑ ุงู„ุขู† ุณูˆู ู„ู† ู†ุฑู‰ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุงู†ูุฌุงุฑ ุฅู„ุง ุจุนุฏ ุฃู„ู ุณู†ุฉุŒ ูˆู‡ูŠ ุงู„ู…ุฏุฉ ุงู„ู„ุงุฒู…ุฉ ู„ู„ุถูˆุก ู„ูŠู‚ุทุนู‡ุง ู…ู† ุงู„ู†ุฌู… ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ุฃุฑุถ.

    ุฃู†ูˆุงุน ุงู„ุฒู…ู†

    ูˆุจู†ุงุก ุนู„ู‰ ุฐู„ูƒ ููƒู„ ู…ุง ู†ุฑุงู‡ ู‡ูˆ ุงู„ุฒู…ู† ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠ ุฃูŠ ุฃู†ู†ุง ู„ุง ู†ุฑู‰ ุงู„ู„ุญุธุฉ ุงู„ุญุงุถุฑุฉ ุฃุจุฏุงู‹ ู…ุงุฏุงู… ู‡ู†ุงู„ูƒ ุฒู…ู† ูŠูุตู„ู†ุง ุนู†ู‡ุง ูˆู„ูˆ ูƒุงู† ุตุบูŠุฑุงู‹ุŒ ูˆู„ุฐู„ูƒ ูŠูˆู… ุงู„ู‚ูŠุงู…ุฉ ุณูˆู ูŠุฎุชููŠ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ู‚ุงู†ูˆู† ูˆู†ุฑู‰ ุงู„ุฃุดูŠุงุก ุญุงุถุฑุฉ ูˆูƒุฃู†ู‡ุง ุชุญุฏุซ ุงู„ุขู†: (ูˆูŽูˆูŽุฌูŽุฏููˆุง ู…ูŽุง ุนูŽู…ูู„ููˆุง ุญูŽุงุถูุฑู‹ุง).
    ูˆุญุชู‰ ู†ุฑู‰ ุงู„ู„ุญุธุฉ ุงู„ุญุงู„ูŠุฉ ูŠุฌุจ ุฃู† ู†ุณูŠุฑ ุจุณุฑุนุฉ ุงู„ุถูˆุกุŒ ุฃู…ุง ุฅุฐุง ุฃุฑุฏู†ุง ุฃู† ูŠุนูƒุณ ุงู„ุฒู…ู† ุงุชุฌุงู‡ู‡ ูู…ุง ุนู„ูŠู†ุง ุฅู„ุง ุฃู† ู†ุณูŠุฑ ุจุณุฑุนุฉ ุฃูƒุจุฑ ู…ู† ุณุฑุนุฉ ุงู„ุถูˆุก ู„ู†ุฑู‰ ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠ!

    ูˆูŠูƒู…ู† ุฑุณู… ุงู„ู…ุฎุทุท ุงู„ุขุชูŠ:

    ุงู„ุณุฑุนุฉ ุงู„ุฒู…ู†
    ุฃู‚ู„ ู…ู† ุณุฑุนุฉ ุงู„ุถูˆุก ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠ
    ุชุณุงูˆูŠ ุณุฑุนุฉ ุงู„ุถูˆุก ุงู„ุญุงุถุฑ
    ุฃูƒุจุฑ ู…ู† ุณุฑุนุฉ ุงู„ุถูˆุก ุฅุนุงุฏุฉ ุฑุคูŠุฉ ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠ

    ุฅู† ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰ ูŠุฑู‰ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุฃุฒู…ู†ุฉ ุงู„ุซู„ุงุซุฉ ุจู†ูุณ ุงู„ู„ุญุธุฉุŒ ูˆู„ุฐู„ูƒ ู†ุฌุฏ ุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู† ุบุงู„ุจุงู‹ ู…ุง ูŠุชุญุฏุซ ุนู† ุงู„ู…ุณุชู‚ุจู„ ุจุตูŠุบุฉ ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠ! ูˆู…ู† ุฃู…ุซู„ุฉ ุฐู„ูƒ ู‚ูˆู„ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰: (ูˆูŽุฃูุฒู’ู„ูููŽุชู ุงู„ู’ุฌูŽู†ูŽู‘ุฉู ู„ูู„ู’ู…ูุชูŽู‘ู‚ููŠู†ูŽ * ูˆูŽุจูุฑูู‘ุฒูŽุชู ุงู„ู’ุฌูŽุญููŠู…ู ู„ูู„ู’ุบูŽุงูˆููŠู†ูŽ * ูˆูŽู‚ููŠู„ูŽ ู„ูŽู‡ูู…ู’ ุฃูŽูŠู’ู†ูŽ ู…ูŽุง ูƒูู†ู’ุชูู…ู’ ุชูŽุนู’ุจูุฏููˆู†ูŽ) [ุงู„ุดุนุฑุงุก: 90-92]. ูˆู…ุน ุฃู† ุงู„ุขูŠุงุช ุชุชุญุฏุซ ุนู† ูŠูˆู… ุงู„ู‚ูŠุงู…ุฉ ุฃูŠ ุนู† ุงู„ุฒู…ู† ุงู„ู…ุณุชู‚ุจู„ุŒ ุฅู„ุง ุฃู†ู‡ุง ุฌุงุกุช ุนู„ู‰ ุตูŠุบุฉ ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠ: (ุฃูุฒู’ู„ูููŽุชูุŒ ุจูุฑูู‘ุฒูŽุชูุŒ ู‚ููŠู„ูŽ).

    ุฅู†ู†ุง ู†ุญู† ุงู„ุจุดุฑ ู†ู†ุชุธุฑ ุญุชู‰ ุชุญุฏุซ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุฃุดูŠุงุกุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰ ู„ุง ูŠู†ุชุธุฑ ุจู„ ูŠุฑู‰ ูƒู„ ุดูŠุก ูˆู‚ุฏ ูˆู‚ุน ุญู‚ูŠู‚ุฉุŒ ูˆู„ุฐู„ูƒ ูŠู‚ูˆู„ ุชุนุงู„ู‰: (ู‚ูู„ู’ ู„ูŽุง ูŠูŽุนู’ู„ูŽู…ู ู…ูŽู†ู’ ูููŠ ุงู„ุณูŽู‘ู…ูŽุงูˆูŽุงุชู ูˆูŽุงู„ู’ุฃูŽุฑู’ุถู ุงู„ู’ุบูŽูŠู’ุจูŽ ุฅูู„ูŽู‘ุง ุงู„ู„ูŽู‘ู‡ู ูˆูŽู…ูŽุง ูŠูŽุดู’ุนูุฑููˆู†ูŽ ุฃูŽูŠูŽู‘ุงู†ูŽ ูŠูุจู’ุนูŽุซููˆู†ูŽ * ุจูŽู„ู ุงุฏูŽู‘ุงุฑูŽูƒูŽ ุนูู„ู’ู…ูู‡ูู…ู’ ูููŠ ุงู„ู’ุขูŽุฎูุฑูŽุฉู ุจูŽู„ู’ ู‡ูู…ู’ ูููŠ ุดูŽูƒูู‘ ู…ูู†ู’ู‡ูŽุง ุจูŽู„ู’ ู‡ูู…ู’ ู…ูู†ู’ู‡ูŽุง ุนูŽู…ููˆู†ูŽ) [ุงู„ู†ู…ู„: 65-66].

    ู…ุฌุฑุฉ ุชุจุนุฏ ุนู†ุง ู…ู„ุงูŠูŠู† ุงู„ุณู†ูˆุงุช ุงู„ุถูˆุฆูŠุฉุŒ ุฅู†ู†ุง ู†ุฑู‰ ููŠ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุตูˆุฑุฉ ุดูƒู„ ุงู„ู…ุฌุฑุฉ ู‚ุจู„ ู…ู„ุงูŠูŠู† ุงู„ุณู†ูˆุงุชุŒ ุฃู…ุง ุดูƒู„ู‡ุง ุงู„ุขู† ูู„ุง ูŠุนู„ู…ู‡ ุฅู„ุง ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰ุŒ ูˆู‚ุฏ ุชูƒูˆู† ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู…ุฌุฑุฉ ู‚ุฏ ุงู†ูุฌุฑุช ูˆู…ุงุชุช ู…ู†ุฐ ู…ู„ุงูŠูŠู† ุงู„ุณู†ูŠู†ุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู†ู†ุง ู„ุง ู†ุฑู‰ ุฐู„ูƒุŒ ู„ุฃู† ุงู„ุดุนุงุน ุงู„ุถูˆุฆูŠ ุงู„ู‚ุงุฏู… ุฅู„ูŠู†ุง ู…ู† ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู…ุฌุฑุฉ ู‚ุทุน ุจู„ุงูŠูŠู† ุงู„ูƒูŠู„ูˆ ู…ุชุฑุงุช ุญุชู‰ ูˆุตู„ ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ุฃุฑุถ. ูˆู„ุฐู„ูƒ ูŠุคูƒุฏ ุงู„ุนู„ู…ุงุก ุจุฃู†ู†ุง ู„ูˆ ุงุณุชุทุนู†ุง ุงู„ุณูŠุฑ ุจุณุฑุนุฉ ุฃูƒุจุฑ ู…ู† ุณุฑุนุฉ ุงู„ุถูˆุก ุณูˆู ู†ู„ุญู‚ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุดุนุงุน ุงู„ุถูˆุฆูŠ ูˆู†ุณุจู‚ู‡ ูˆู†ุฑู‰ ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠ!

    ุงู„ู‚ูˆุงู†ูŠู† ุณุชุชุบูŠุฑ ูŠูˆู… ุงู„ู‚ูŠุงู…ุฉ

    ุฅู† ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ูƒู„ุงู… ู„ุง ูŠุนู†ูŠ ุฃู† ุงู„ู†ุงุณ ุณูŠุณูŠุฑูˆู† ุจุณุฑุนุฉ ุฃูƒุจุฑ ู…ู† ุณุฑุนุฉ ุงู„ุถูˆุก ูŠูˆู… ุงู„ู‚ูŠุงู…ุฉ ุญุชู‰ ูŠุฑูˆุง ุฃุนู…ุงู„ู‡ู… ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠุฉุŒ ุฅู†ู…ุง ุณูŠูƒูˆู† ู„ูŠูˆู… ุงู„ู‚ูŠุงู…ุฉ ู‚ูˆุงู†ูŠู†ู‡ ุงู„ุฎุงุตุฉ ูˆุงู„ุชูŠ ู„ุง ู†ุฏุฑูƒู‡ุงุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู†ู†ุง ู†ุคูƒุฏ ุฃู† ุชุญู‚ูŠู‚ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุฃู…ุฑ ู…ู† ุงู„ู†ุงุญูŠุฉ ุงู„ุนู„ู…ูŠุฉ ู…ู…ูƒู†.

    ูˆุงู„ุฏู„ูŠู„ ุนู„ู‰ ุฃู† ูŠูˆู… ุงู„ู‚ูŠุงู…ุฉ ู„ู‡ ู‚ูˆุงู†ูŠู†ู‡ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชุฎุชู„ู ุนู† ู‚ูˆุงู†ูŠู† ุงู„ุฏู†ูŠุง ู‚ูˆู„ ุงู„ุญู‚ ุชุนุงู„ู‰: (ูŠูŽูˆู’ู…ูŽ ุชูุจูŽุฏูŽู‘ู„ู ุงู„ู’ุฃูŽุฑู’ุถู ุบูŽูŠู’ุฑูŽ ุงู„ู’ุฃูŽุฑู’ุถู ูˆูŽุงู„ุณูŽู‘ู…ูŽูˆูŽุงุชู ูˆูŽุจูŽุฑูŽุฒููˆุง ู„ูู„ูŽู‘ู‡ู ุงู„ู’ูˆูŽุงุญูุฏู ุงู„ู’ู‚ูŽู‡ูŽู‘ุงุฑู) [ุฅุจุฑุงู‡ูŠู…: 48]. ูˆูŠู‚ูˆู„ ุฃูŠุถุงู‹: (ู„ูŽู‚ูŽุฏู’ ูƒูู†ู’ุชูŽ ูููŠ ุบูŽูู’ู„ูŽุฉู ู…ูู†ู’ ู‡ูŽุฐูŽุง ููŽูƒูŽุดูŽูู’ู†ูŽุง ุนูŽู†ู’ูƒูŽ ุบูุทูŽุงุกูŽูƒูŽ ููŽุจูŽุตูŽุฑููƒูŽ ุงู„ู’ูŠูŽูˆู’ู…ูŽ ุญูŽุฏููŠุฏูŒ) [ู‚: 22].
    ูˆุจู…ุง ุฃู† ูˆุณูŠู„ุฉ ุงู„ุฑุคูŠุฉ ู‡ูŠ ุงู„ุจุตุฑ ูˆุงู„ุฃุดุนุฉ ุงู„ุถูˆุฆูŠุฉุŒ ูุฅู† ุฑุคูŠุฉ ุฃูŠ ุญุฏุซ ูŠุณุชุบุฑู‚ ุฒู…ู†ุงู‹ ูƒู…ุง ู‚ู„ู†ุงุŒ ู‡ุฐุง ููŠ ุงู„ุฏู†ูŠุงุŒ ุฃู…ุง ูŠูˆู… ุงู„ู‚ูŠุงู…ุฉ ูุงู„ุฃู…ุฑ ู…ุฎุชู„ู ุชู…ุงู…ุงู‹ุŒ ู„ุฃู† ุงู„ู‚ูˆุงู†ูŠู† ุณุชุชุบูŠุฑ ูˆุชุชุจุฏู„ ูˆุนู†ุฏู‡ุง ูŠุณุชุทูŠุน ุงู„ุฅู†ุณุงู† ุฑุคูŠุฉ ุฃุดูŠุงุก ู„ุง ูŠุณุชุทูŠุน ุฑุคูŠุชู‡ุง ููŠ ุงู„ุฏู†ูŠุงุŒ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ู…ุนู†ู‰ ู‚ูˆู„ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰ (ููŽุจูŽุตูŽุฑููƒูŽ ุงู„ู’ูŠูŽูˆู’ู…ูŽ ุญูŽุฏููŠุฏูŒ).

    ู…ุนุฌุฒุฉ ุงู„ู…ุนุฑุงุฌ

    ูˆู‡ู†ุง ุฃูŠุถุงู‹ ู†ุชุฐูƒุฑ ุญุงุฏุซุฉ ุงู„ู…ุนุฑุงุฌ ุนู†ุฏู…ุง ุนุฑุฌ ุงู„ู†ุจูŠ ุงู„ูƒุฑูŠู… ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุณู„ู… ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ุณู…ุงุก ูˆุฑุฃู‰ ุฃุตุญุงุจ ุงู„ู†ุงุฑ ูŠุนุฐู‘ุจูˆู† ููŠู‡ุงุŒ ุฑุขู‡ู… ุฑุคูŠุฉ ุญู‚ูŠู‚ูŠุฉุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† ุงู„ูƒูุงุฑ ุฃู†ูƒุฑูˆุง ุนู„ูŠู‡ ุฐู„ูƒ ูู„ู… ุชุชุตูˆุฑ ุนู‚ูˆู„ู‡ู… ุงู„ู…ุญุฏูˆุฏุฉ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุฃู…ุฑ.
    ูˆู„ูƒู† ุงู„ุนู„ู… ุงู„ูŠูˆู… ูˆุนู„ู‰ ู„ุณุงู† ุบูŠุฑ ุงู„ู…ุณู„ู…ูŠู† ูŠุนุชุฑููˆู† ุจุฅู…ูƒุงู†ูŠุฉ ุฑุคูŠุฉ ุฃุดูŠุงุก ุญุฏุซุช ููŠ ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠุŒ ูƒู…ุง ูŠุนุชุฑููˆู† ุจุฅู…ูƒุงู†ูŠุฉ ุฑุคูŠุฉ ุฃุดูŠุงุก ุณูˆู ุชุญุฏุซ ููŠ ุงู„ู…ุณุชู‚ุจู„ุŒ ูˆู‡ู†ุง ุชุชุฌู„ู‰ ุนุธู…ุฉ ู…ุนุฌุฒุฉ ุงู„ู…ุนุฑุงุฌุŒ ุญูŠุซ ุฅู† ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰ ู‚ุฏ ุฌุนู„ ุงู„ุนู„ู…ุงุก ูŠูƒุชุดููˆู† ุฃุดูŠุงุก ุชุคูƒุฏ ู„ู‡ู… ุฃู† ุฑุคูŠุฉ ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠ ุฃูˆ ุงู„ู…ุณุชู‚ุจู„ ุนู„ู…ูŠุงู‹ ุฃู…ุฑ ุตุญูŠุญ ูˆู…ู†ุทู‚ูŠ ูˆุบูŠุฑ ู…ุณุชุจุนุฏ.

    ูˆู„ุฐู„ูƒ ู‚ุงู„ ุชุนุงู„ู‰ ุนู† ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู…ุนุฌุฒุฉ: (ู…ูŽุง ุฒูŽุงุบูŽ ุงู„ู’ุจูŽุตูŽุฑู ูˆูŽู…ูŽุง ุทูŽุบูŽู‰ * ู„ูŽู‚ูŽุฏู’ ุฑูŽุฃูŽู‰ ู…ูู†ู’ ุขูŽูŠูŽุงุชู ุฑูŽุจูู‘ู‡ู ุงู„ู’ูƒูุจู’ุฑูŽู‰) [ุงู„ู†ุฌู…: 17-18]. ูˆู‡ุฐุง ูŠุฏู„ ุนู„ู‰ ุฃู† ุงู„ู†ุจูŠ ุงู„ูƒุฑูŠู… ู‚ุฏ ุฑุฃู‰ ุงู„ู…ุนุฌุฒุงุช ููŠ ุงู„ุณู…ุงุก ู„ูŠู„ุฉ ุงู„ู…ุนุฑุงุฌ ุฑุคูŠุฉ ุญู‚ูŠู‚ูŠุฉุŒ ุจุนูƒุณ ู…ุง ูŠุฏุนูŠ ุงู„ุจุนุถ ุฃู†ู‡ ุฑุขู‡ุง ููŠ ุงู„ู…ู†ุงู…!

    ูˆุงู„ุนุฌูŠุจ ุฃู† ู‡ู†ุงู„ูƒ ู…ุนุฌุฒุฉ ุนู„ู…ูŠุฉ ููŠ ูƒู„ู…ุฉ (ุงู„ู…ุนุฑุงุฌ)ุŒ ูู„ู… ูŠุณู…ู‘ู‡ุง “ุงู„ุตุนูˆุฏ” ุฃูˆ ุงู„ุทูŠุฑุงู†” ุฃูˆ ุบูŠุฑ ุฐู„ูƒุŒ ุจู„ ุณู…ู‰ ุงู„ู†ุจูŠ ุงู„ูƒุฑูŠู… ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู…ุนุฌุฒุฉ ุจุงู„ู…ุนุฑุงุฌุŒ ู„ุฃู† ุญุฑูƒุฉ ุงู„ุฃุฌุณุงู… ููŠ ุงู„ูุถุงุก ู„ุง ูŠู…ูƒู† ุฃุจุฏุงู‹ ุฃู† ุชูƒูˆู† ู…ุณุชู‚ูŠู…ุฉุŒ ุจู„ ู„ุงุจุฏ ู…ู† ุฃู† ุชูƒูˆู† ู…ุชุนุฑุฌุฉุŒ ุจุณุจุจ ุญู‚ูˆู„ ุงู„ุฌุงุฐุจูŠุฉ ุงู„ูƒุซูŠูุฉ ุญูˆู„ ุงู„ู…ุฌุฑุงุช ูˆุชุฌู…ุนุงุชู‡ุง.

    ูˆูŠุญุถุฑู†ูŠ ููŠ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ู…ู‚ุงู… ู…ุญุงูˆู„ุฉ ู„ุจุนุถ ุงู„ู…ุดูƒูƒูŠู† ุจูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰ุŒ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู…ุญุงูˆู„ุฉ ุฃุฑุงุฏูˆุง ู…ู† ุฎู„ุงู„ู‡ุง ุชุฃู„ูŠู ูƒุชุงุจ ูŠุดุจู‡ ุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู† ูุธู‡ุฑุช ุงู„ุฃุฎุทุงุก ู…ุจุงุดุฑุฉ ุญุชู‰ ููŠ ุนู†ูˆุงู† ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ! ูู‚ุฏ ุณู…ูˆู‡ “ุงู„ูุฑู‚ุงู† ุงู„ุญู‚”ุŒ ูˆุญุณุจ ู…ุนุงุฌู… ุงู„ู„ุบุฉ ูุฅู† ูƒู„ู…ุฉ (ุงู„ูุฑู‚ุงู†) ุชุนู†ูŠ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูŠูุฑู‚ ุจูŠู† ุงู„ุญู‚ ูˆุงู„ุจุงุทู„ุŒ ูˆู„ุฐู„ูƒ ู„ุง ูŠุฌูˆุฒ ุฃู† ู†ู‚ูˆู„ “ูุฑู‚ุงู† ุญู‚” ุฃูˆ “ูุฑู‚ุงู† ุจุงุทู„” ู„ุฃู† ูƒู„ู…ุฉ ุงู„ูุฑู‚ุงู† ุจุญุฏ ุฐุงุชู‡ุง ุชุฏู„ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุชูุฑูŠู‚ ุจูŠู† ุงู„ุญู‚ ูˆุงู„ุจุงุทู„!

    ูุชุฃู…ู„ ุฃุฎูŠ ุงู„ู‚ุงุฑุฆ ูƒูŠู ุฃุฎุทุฃ ู‡ุคู„ุงุก ุญุชู‰ ููŠ ุนู†ูˆุงู† ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจุŒ ูˆู‡ู… ูŠู…ุชู„ูƒูˆู† ุชู‚ู†ูŠุงุช ุงู„ู‚ุฑู† ุงู„ุญุงุฏูŠ ูˆุงู„ุนุดุฑูŠู† ูˆู„ุฏูŠู‡ู… ุงู„ุนู„ู…ุงุก ูˆุงู„ู…ุงู„ ูˆุงู„ุญุงุณุจุงุช ุงู„ุฑู‚ู…ูŠุฉุŒ ูˆุงู„ุณุคุงู„: ูƒูŠู ุงุณุชุทุงุน ุฑุฌู„ ุฃู…ูŠ ูŠุนูŠุด ููŠ ุงู„ู‚ุฑู† ุงู„ุณุงุจุน ุฃู† ูŠุคู„ู ูƒุชุงุจุงู‹ ุถุฎู…ุงู‹ (ูƒู…ุง ูŠุฏุนูŠ ุงู„ู…ู„ุญุฏูˆู†) ู…ุซู„ ุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู† ูˆู„ุง ูŠุฑุชูƒุจ ุฃูŠ ุฎุทุฃ ุนู„ู…ูŠ ุฃูˆ ู„ุบูˆูŠุŒ ู„ูˆ ู„ู… ูŠูƒู† ุฑุณูˆู„ ุงู„ู„ู‡ุŸ

    ุชูˆุถูŠุญ

    ุฅู† ุงู„ู…ุนู„ูˆู…ุงุช ุงู„ูˆุงุฑุฏุฉ ููŠ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุงู„ุฉ ู„ุง ุชุนู†ูŠ ุฃุจุฏุงู‹ ุฃู† ุงู„ุนู„ู…ุงุก ุณูŠุชู…ูƒู†ูˆู† ู…ู† ุฑุคูŠุฉ ุงู„ู…ุณุชู‚ุจู„ุŒ ูุฅู† ุงู„ุบูŠุจ ู„ุง ูŠุนู„ู…ู‡ ุฅู„ุง ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰ ุงู„ู‚ุงุฆู„: (ูˆูŽุนูู†ู’ุฏูŽู‡ู ู…ูŽููŽุงุชูุญู ุงู„ู’ุบูŽูŠู’ุจู ู„ูŽุง ูŠูŽุนู’ู„ูŽู…ูู‡ูŽุง ุฅูู„ูŽู‘ุง ู‡ููˆูŽ ูˆูŽูŠูŽุนู’ู„ูŽู…ู ู…ูŽุง ูููŠ ุงู„ู’ุจูŽุฑูู‘ ูˆูŽุงู„ู’ุจูŽุญู’ุฑู ูˆูŽู…ูŽุง ุชูŽุณู’ู‚ูุทู ู…ูู†ู’ ูˆูŽุฑูŽู‚ูŽุฉู ุฅูู„ูŽู‘ุง ูŠูŽุนู’ู„ูŽู…ูู‡ูŽุง ูˆูŽู„ูŽุง ุญูŽุจูŽู‘ุฉู ูููŠ ุธูู„ูู…ูŽุงุชู ุงู„ู’ุฃูŽุฑู’ุถู ูˆูŽู„ูŽุง ุฑูŽุทู’ุจู ูˆูŽู„ูŽุง ูŠูŽุงุจูุณู ุฅูู„ูŽู‘ุง ูููŠ ูƒูุชูŽุงุจู ู…ูุจููŠู†ู) [ุงู„ุฃู†ุนุงู…: 59].

    ูˆู„ูƒู† ุงู„ุนู„ู…ุงุก ูŠู…ูƒู†ู‡ู… ุฃู† ูŠุชุตูˆุฑูˆุง ุฃู† ู…ุนุฑูุฉ ุงู„ุบูŠุจ ู…ู…ูƒู†ุฉุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู† ู„ูŠุณ ู…ู† ุงู„ุถุฑูˆุฑูŠ ุฃู† ูŠุตู„ูˆุง ุฅู„ูŠู‡ุงุŒ ุชู…ุงู…ุงู‹ ูƒู…ุง ูŠู…ูƒู†ู‡ู… ุฃู† ูŠุชุตูˆุฑูˆุง ุฃู† ุฑุคูŠุฉ ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠ ู…ู…ูƒู†ุฉ ุนู„ู…ูŠุงู‹ ูˆู„ูƒู† ู„ูŠุณ ุจุงู„ุถุฑูˆุฑุฉ ุฃู† ูŠุฑูˆุง ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠุŒ ูˆู„ุฐู„ูƒ ูุฅู† ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุจุญุซ ู‡ูˆ ุฏู„ูŠู„ ุนู„ู‰ ุฃู† ุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู† ู„ุง ูŠุชุญุฏุซ ุนู† ุฃุดูŠุงุก ุบูŠุฑ ู…ู†ุทู‚ูŠุฉุŒ ุฅู†ู…ุง ุญุฏูŠุซ ุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู† ู‡ูˆ ุถู…ู† ุงู„ู…ู†ุทู‚ ุงู„ุนู„ู…ูŠุŒ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ุฏู„ูŠู„ ุนู„ู‰ ุตุฏู‚ ู‚ูˆู„ ุงู„ุญู‚ ุชุจุงุฑูƒ ูˆุชุนุงู„ู‰ ุนู† ูƒุชุงุจู‡: (ูˆูŽู„ูŽูˆู’ ูƒูŽุงู†ูŽ ู…ูู†ู’ ุนูู†ู’ุฏู ุบูŽูŠู’ุฑู ุงู„ู„ูŽู‘ู‡ู ู„ูŽูˆูŽุฌูŽุฏููˆุง ูููŠู‡ู ุงุฎู’ุชูู„ูŽุงูู‹ุง) [ุงู„ู†ุณุงุก: 82].

    ูˆู‡ู†ุง ู„ุงุจุฏ ู…ู† ูˆู‚ูุฉ

    ู„ูˆ ูƒุงู† ุงู„ู†ุจูŠ ุงู„ูƒุฑูŠู… ู‚ุฏ ุฌุงุก ุจุฃุดูŠุงุก ู…ู† ุนู†ุฏู‡ ุฅุฐู† ูƒุงู† ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ู…ูƒู† ุฃู† ูŠุฎุทุฆ ููŠ ุชุณู…ูŠุฉ ู…ุนุฌุฒุฉ ุงู„ู…ุนุฑุงุฌุŒ ูู„ู…ุงุฐุง ุณู…ุงู‡ุง ุงู„ู…ุนุฑุงุฌ ุจู…ุง ูŠุชูˆุงูู‚ ู…ุน ุงู„ุญู‚ูŠู‚ุฉ ุงู„ูƒูˆู†ูŠุฉ ูˆู‡ูŠ ุญุฑูƒุฉ ุงู„ุฃุฌุณุงู… ุงู„ุชุนุฑุฌูŠุฉ ููŠ ุงู„ูุถุงุกุŸ
    ู„ูˆ ูƒุงู† ุงู„ู†ุจูŠ ูŠุฑูŠุฏ ุฃู† ูŠูุชุฑูŠ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ูƒุฐุจุงู‹ ูƒู…ุง ูŠุฏุนูŠ ุจุนุถ ุงู„ู…ุดูƒูƒูŠู†ุŒ ูู„ู…ุงุฐุง ูŠู†ุณุจ ูƒู„ ุดูŠุก ููŠ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ู‚ุฑุขู† ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰ุŸ ูˆู„ู…ุงุฐุง ูŠุชุญุฏุซ ุนู† ุงู„ู…ุณุชู‚ุจู„ ุจุตูŠุบุฉ ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠุŸ ูˆูƒูŠู ุถู…ู† ุฃู† ุงู„ู†ุงุณ ุณูŠู‚ุจู„ูˆู† ู…ู†ู‡ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุฃุณู„ูˆุจ ุงู„ุฌุฏูŠุฏ ูˆุบูŠุฑ ุงู„ู…ุฃู„ูˆูุŸ

    ูˆู„ูˆ ูƒุงู† ู…ุญู…ุฏ ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุณู„ู… ูŠุฑูŠุฏ ุฃู† ูŠูƒุฐุจ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ู†ุงุณุŒ ููƒูŠู ุนู„ู… ุฃู†ู‡ ุณูŠูƒูˆู† ุฎุงุชู… ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก ุฌู…ูŠุนุงู‹ุŸ ูƒูŠู ุถู…ู† ุฃู†ู‡ ู„ู† ูŠุฃุชูŠ ุจุนุฏู‡ ู†ุจูŠ ู„ูˆ ู„ู… ูŠูƒู† ุฑุณูˆู„ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุญู‚ุงู‹ุŸ ูˆูƒูŠู ุถู…ู† ุฃู† ุงู„ุฅุณู„ุงู… ุณูŠู†ุชุดุฑ ุฅู„ู‰ ุฌู…ูŠุน ุจู‚ุงุน ุงู„ุฏู†ูŠุง: (ู‡ููˆูŽ ุงู„ูŽู‘ุฐููŠ ุฃูŽุฑู’ุณูŽู„ูŽ ุฑูŽุณููˆู„ูŽู‡ู ุจูุงู„ู’ู‡ูุฏูŽู‰ ูˆูŽุฏููŠู†ู ุงู„ู’ุญูŽู‚ูู‘ ู„ููŠูุธู’ู‡ูุฑูŽู‡ู ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ุงู„ุฏูู‘ูŠู†ู ูƒูู„ูู‘ู‡ู ูˆูŽู„ูŽูˆู’ ูƒูŽุฑูู‡ูŽ ุงู„ู’ู…ูุดู’ุฑููƒููˆู†ูŽ) [ุงู„ุตู: 9].

    __________________

    ุฑุญูŠู„ู‰ ุนู† ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ู…ู†ุชุฏู‰ ูŠุฒุฏู†ู‰ ูƒุฑุงู…ู‡

    ุฌุฑูˆุจ ู…ูˆุฒุฒ ุงูƒุงุฏูŠู…ู‰ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ููŠุณ ุจูˆูƒ
    ุงุถุบุท ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุตูˆุฑู‡

    #2
    05-16-2009, 02:01 PM

    fierce
    ูƒูˆู„ ุฌุฏุง

    ุชุงุฑูŠุฎ ุงู„ุชุณุฌูŠู„: Mar 2008
    ุงู„ุฅู‚ุงู…ุฉ: ู†ูุณ ุงู„ู…ูƒุงู† ุงู„ู„ู‰ ูƒุงู† ุจูŠุฌู…ุนู†ุง ุณูˆุง
    ุงู„ู…ุดุงุฑูƒุงุช: 1,556

    Comment by abd errahman — October 31, 2010 #

  69. Da:Araboโ–ผIn:Ingleseโ–ผ

    Consenti digitazione fonetica

    Traduzione da Arabo verso Inglese

    In the name of God the Merciful
    Willing, we will start our journey
    About the world of space and what goes on around us
    Begin to Amanullah
    Stop Training and the beginning of our journey for
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    Origins of the universe and end, and re-creation again! …

    Big Bang, which are from the universe, create stars, planets and galaxies from cosmic smoke, determine the age of the universe, the phenomenon of the expanding universe, the end of the universe.

    The scientists observed the phenomenon of the expanding universe; including concluded origins of the universe, and speculated how to be an end, and monitored the space agency NASA and the presence of remnants of the smoke - caused by the explosion - which was formed from the stars and planets, and Qur’anic references reach d / Zaghloul El-Naggar to the age of the universe, which is almost identical with the findings of the recent NASA space shuttle provider using a very sophisticated sensors,

    Finally what will happen to the heavens and the earth in the end?!.

    1 - expansion of the universe

    1-1: to prove that the universe is expanding: -

    - The world was firmly advocated the universe, and not change, this belief has been prevalent until the beginning of the twentieth century, when it proved to Russian physicist Alexander Friedmann and the Belgian astronomer Georges Emarit theory that the universe is in constant motion, and that it is expanding.

    - This is the truth that have proved also by observational data in 1929, when the American astronomer Edwin Hubble to monitor the sky through a telescope; discovered that stars and galaxies were Tptaadan constantly about us, and each other at rates approaching the speed of light - estimated at Three hundred thousand kilometers per second - and this is proof of the fact the expansion of the universe, and the spacing Majrath, was endorsed by: mathematical equations, the laws of physics and theoretical conclusions of the astronomers.

    - These results have raised controversy for so long that scientists really going on him, as has been the Holy Quran with reference to that fact before the thousand and four hundred years to tell the truth - the Almighty -: (and have built the heaven with might, and I Musaon) (Thareyat: 47) , and the word “heaven” as it came in this verse is used in different parts of the Koran, and here too the words: Space and the universe, it is the eloquence of the verse as she came and proved that the universe is “expanding” at a time when astronomy was still primitive, and the whole world calls firmly of the universe, and not to change; because the Quran is the word of God - the Creator - and Ruler of the universe as a whole.

    From the moment of the Big Bang universe very quickly widened
    (Scientists, likening the surface of the balloon inflated The points on the surface of the balloon away from each other
    Whenever the balloon and so on Falcon greater the increased distance in it).

    2-1: Select the rate of expansion of the universe: -

    - The average rate of cosmic expansion must have been chosen very wisely; because the current rate had not yet passed the critical point that could lead to its collapse and congestion on the same; which confirms that it is governed by controls extreme accuracy and precision, are still visible universe continues to expand Since its inception, with the same critical rate of expansion, even bypassed portion of the hundreds of billions from the current rate of expansion; the universe collapsed immediately, Glory, who saved from collapse ..!!!

    - Was not able to explain the theory of relativity of it, nor could any sane person imagine the source of the creation of this universe with such provisions as being a thing of the Creator - the Almighty - who said:
    (Verily, when He intends a thing to say to him, Be) (Yasin: 82).

    2 - Cosmogony

    1-2: How did the universe conclusion of breadth: -

    - Club and then each of the astronomers, and physics - astronomy and theory -: that if we made such a broad back with cosmic time; we’ll find that all forms of matter and energy in the universe - including the perceived and perceived - and piling up on each other in an elementary one infinite in size is almost zero,
    Shrinks at this point all the dimensions of the place, time and even evaporate in a phenomenon scientists call it:
    “The essence of a very compact,” and calls on behalf of the Holy Quran: “darn.”

    - This was the primary offense in the case of density, temperature and stop with them all the known laws of physics, the human mind can hardly be Itsourhma, burst into the offense this initial order of God - the Almighty -; and resulted in the entire universe since the fifteen billion years ago, in the phenomenon of scholars called the process: “Big Bang” Great, and calls it the Holy Quran as: “Hernia”, and the scientific community of modern agree that the Big Bang is the only one who explained how the emergence of the universe, has been this book all human knowledge with reference to that event cosmic Great by the thousand, four hundred years of saying the right - the Almighty -:
    (Not those who disbelieve known that the heavens and the earth were sewn together and made from water every living thing do you not believe in) (the Prophets: 30).

    According to the Big Bang theory: It all started from the explosion point with infinite density and the size is equal to zero
    And, over time widened and the distances between these objects

    2-2: Scientific comment: -
    - In this verse, we read a question addressed to the Truth about the start of creation of the universe, the question is: Can this start after they saw and observed - that is just a coincidence?!
    - They tried to explain the uniqueness of the universe through the words “the essence of a very compact,” and “moments of the Big Bang,”
    And “sudden cooling”, and so on, and God summed up all the words - which tried to reach the Non-believers and were unable to -
    In two words: “darn” and “hernia.”
    - Described the Koran what they know - that all this creation began out of one - through the Arabic word “mend”, it means - in Arabic - and connected to a compressed piece of woven fiber or fabric.
    - But those scientists materialists, had strayed when a perception that this article turned or spread to such a wonderful system of its own, we must recognize that all of this done by the authority of the Creator, and his will;
    So as to be scientific or logical in their conclusions.
    - Describes the spread of this Article Creator CD-ROM with the word “Vtguenihama,” and this word means that God separated this article (darn) willfully to homogeneous fibers, constitute the earth and the heavens.
    - And we see this consistency in the fiber, or components that fill the universe Organizer: where we find that the articles of the sun like other materials on the ground, and on the surface of the moon, and on other planets, and on any other star, and all of these substances formed by atoms are similar in composition.
    - And this is the Harmonized System began the first moment of creation; because such creation is by the creator of one and achieved a oneness.
    - And then Valtobeir to “repair” as a piece of cloth woven much better than the expression to “start from the compressed substance,” and the word “Vtguenihama”, which means the formation of the heavens and the earth through the deployment of fiber darn the will of God, the best expression of the “Big Bang”; Therefore, it is for researchers to leave the non-logical assumptions of the universe to blow up himself in a wise manner, and we must honestly recognize the words of the Koran; Such recognition, lead them to be true believers of this religion which came to the right to correct all the ambiguous beliefs, and irrational.

    3-2: Smoke are: -

    - The studies of theoretical physics in the late twentieth century that the offense specifications elementary body of the universe when it exploded; turned into a ball of radiation and elementary particles that continued to expand and cool at a great speed until it turned into a cloud of smoke, and on the eighth of November in 1989 launched the agency NASA spacecraft as the “discoverer of the background radiation of the universe” - in orbit around the Earth at an altitude six hundred miles of sea level -; to measure the temperature of the background radiation of the universe, and measure both: material intensity and the optical and microwave in the universe perceived, away from the influence of clouds and pollutants in pronunciation lower atmosphere of the Earth, and has this satellite Explorer to send a huge amount of information, and millions of images of the effects of cosmic smoke first, which resulted from the Big Bang of the universe, and proved those images that Smoke in the case of completely opaque Alizlam a case that dominated the universe in its early stages before the creation of the earth and the heavens, Glory, who revealed before the thousand and four hundred years in the folds of his book:
    (Say that ye deny Him Who created the earth in two Days, and ascribe ye unto Him rivals of the Worlds … and make it firm mountains from above it and blessed it and measured therein its sustenance in four days, both for the request … and then turned to the heaven when it was smoke, and said it and the earth: Come both, willingly or unwillingly We come willingly) (separated:

    4-2: the stars are producing light and heat: -

    - Universe turned into a cloud of smoke is composed of photons and electrons and Alniotrinwat and antibodies of these particles with a few protons, and neutrons, which can be found in the universe in the form of what is called as the “dark matter”. - Were it not for the continuation of the universe to expand and have vanished in HD; for Avant: the elementary particles of matter and Oddadha each other, and ended the universe, but keeping the conservation of God who perfected everything He created, and calls now Guth that expanded at a tremendous rate perception has led to increasing the diameter of the Universe Posts: 2910 times
    In a split second, and calculations indicate theoretical physics to continue to lower the temperature of the universe to one billion (thousand million) the degree of absolute shortly thereafter, and when that degree united protons and neutrons to form:
    Nuclei of heavy hydrogen (deuterium) that part of the decomposition to hydrogen, and the other is combined with more protons and neutrons; to be helium nuclei and a few nuclei of elements such as:
    Nuclei lithium and beryllium nuclei, but remained the overwhelming proportion of the nuclei of hydrogen and helium gas.

    - According to theoretical calculations that after a little stop production of helium and the following items to him, and continued the universe to expand and cool for a long time, and decreased the temperature of the universe to a few thousand degrees, while the atoms began to assemble, and began to smoke cosmic congestion on the body numbers of massive cosmic nebulae.
    - While continuing to expand and cool in the universe, began to such parts of the nebulae in the condensation on the same gravity and revolve around the same speeds increasing gradually; even formed inside blocks of condensed gases,

    With the continued rotation of those dense blocks within the nebulae; began quantities of gaseous hydrogen and helium that are inside the dense blocks in the stacking up on themselves at higher rates; which led to a further rise in temperatures that reached the level necessary to start the process of nuclear fusion; Then, the stars produced of light and heat.
    - In the high mass stars have continued the process of nuclear fusion; for the synthesis of elements up in the atomic weight gradually, such as: carbon, oxygen and followed; until the star’s core turns completely into iron; Vinfjr this star supernova (Nova) in the form of: The above supernovae, and strewn with body parts over supernovae and other heavy elements within the galaxy; to form the planets and asteroids, while keeping them in the galaxy gas could enter the building in another star.
    - And contains our sun on about 2% of the mass of the heavier elements in their atomic weights, of Ghazi: hydrogen and helium, the two main components to it, and these heavy elements are definitely not made up within the sun,
    Rather, it was the remnants of exploded supernovae some of the above.

    - And decides to scholars of theoretical physics and astronomy that cosmic smoke, it was a mixture of hot dark gases that some elementary particles of matter and antimatter, to witness this picture of pictures of the marital situation in the universe to God alone exclusivity monotheism over all His creation, there is no word died this case right word, such as smoke; Glory, who revealed in his book by the thousand, four hundred years, this smoke has been dark prevails, and containing the atoms Annasralti creating them then all of heaven and earth.
    - Scientists estimate the mass of this dark smoke about 90% of the mass of matter in the universe perspective, and wrote George Smoot - one responsible for the trip Navigator - a report published by the year 1992 the results obtained from a large number of pictures of the universe, was the most important these results: the situation that prevailed in smoke homogeneous existence after the Big Bang, the great,
    As well as the degree of residual heat in the form of background radiation have confirmed that the Big Bang.
    - It was reported in those statements to respond to the false theories that tried - from the perspectives of infidelity and atheism: -
    Over creation, and the ingratitude Creator - the Almighty -; Vadt falsely perpetuate the universe without a beginning or end, such as: theory of the universe continued already proclaimed and defended by Hermann Bondi and Fred Hoelvi Year 1949
    , And the oscillating universe theory advocated by Richard Tolman before.

    - It was in proving the presence of smoke and cosmic background radiation of the universe after the expansion of the universe to prove what we are sure that a creature that has a beginning, I must be him in the end of the day has been confirmed by the images broadcast by:
    Vehicle Navigator of the background radiation, which was published in April 1992 all of those facts.

    Photograph of the rear radiation of the universe (Back ground radiation): Vabaka red represent places of heat,

    The blue spots represent places bar

    De

    3 - Quranic references to determine the age of the universe

    - I have mentioned in the Holy Quran in many verses that God created the universe in six days, as in His saying:
    (We created the heavens and the earth and all between them in six days, and naught of weariness) (BC: 38).

    - As for today, is meant by stages or periods of time, to create a universe and not the days that we hold we humans,
    Evidence is the absence of the phrase “of your reckoning” in all the verses that talk about the six days of creation as in the saying - the Almighty -:
    (He Who created the heavens and the earth in six days and His Throne was on the water that He may try which of you is best in deed
    While I told you after envoys from the death of those who disbelieve would certainly say this is mere magic) (Hud: 7),
    And says: (God who created the heavens and the earth and all between them in six days, then He mounted the throne of Him from your guardian or intercessor, will you not remember) (Sura: 4);
    Here, we note that today in the Al-Sajdah verse (4): The stage of the creation,
    Today in the verse (5): it is that we prepare from today when the sun rises every day,
    The question now is: what are these days or six stages, and how it can be divided Konya?
    Quranic reference: -
    - He said - meaning: - “Say ye deny Him Who created the earth in two Days? Equals with Him is the Lord of the Worlds …
    And make it firm mountains from above it and blessed it and measured therein its sustenance in four days, both for the request …
    Then turned to the heaven when it was smoke, and said it and the earth: Come both, willingly or loth …
    Vqdahn seven heavens in two Days and inspired in each heaven its affair adorned the lower heaven with lamps, and preserved
    That the two verses “(separated :9-12); According to these verses, the six days of creation was divided - as the whole commentators - to three equal sections, each section is equivalent to two days of creation relative concept of time as follows:

    First: two days for the creation of the earth from the sky, smoke I: -
    - The Almighty said: (Say Oinkm deny Him Who created the earth in two Days? His rivals Lord of the Worlds) (separated: 9).

    II: two days for the settlement of the seven heavens: -
    - The Almighty said: (Vqdahn seven heavens in two Days and inspired in each heaven its affair adorned the lower heaven with lamps, and preserved so the two verses) (separated: 12), this refers to the case of smoke to the sky after the Big Bang, the great two days, where began to form the heavens Vqdahn seven heavens in two days.

    Third: Two days to measure the earth geology and harnessed to man: -
    - The Almighty said: (and make the mountains from above it and blessed it and measured therein its sustenance in four days, either to the liquid) (separated: 10); which refers to the mountains meteorites fell and settled at the outset on the earth’s crust as soon as hardening based on the words from “above”.

    - And says: “and blessed it sustenance - that is, as much as the livelihoods of its people - and says:” In four days, both for asking “:
    Any four days full and equal, no more and no less than the asking humans for what they created.

    - In the opinion of all commentators that these four days include: the creation of Earth Day on the measure and its geological, It is clear from the above:
    Equal time days, otherwise it would have been collected and divided into three equal stages.

    Geological measure of the land until the arrival of questioners (human): took two days of six days of creation;
    Took any third age of the universe.

    - And where to measure geological land since the start of hardening of the earth’s crust, and even the appearance of man has taken place of 4.5 billion years old - according to the study of Earth’s age -; if the age of the universe = 4.5 ร— 3 = 13.5 billion years, a figure close to the findings of the U.S. space agency NASA recently, using the space shuttle equipped with highly sophisticated sensors; to study the universe where the estimated age of the universe 13.7 billion years old.

    4 - What will happen to the fact that in the end?!

    - After describing the beginning of creation in verse (30) of the Holy Koran - as we saw - tell us in an interview with the Messenger of Allah is true about the future of the universe, such as at the end or in the Day of Resurrection:
    It was narrated that Abdullah bin Amr said: The Messenger of Allah peace be upon him: “God the heavens turn the Day of Resurrection
    And then taking them with his right hand and then say I’m the king Aljabbaron Where? Where is arrogant? Then turn the Two Lands with his left hand,
    In the novel: taking them in his other hand and then say I’m the king where Aljabbaron Where arrogant? “(Narrated by Muslim)
    This hadeeth is also motivated by the meaning of the verses which say Karimtin our Lord (Blessed and Exalted):

    1 - (Day whereon they will not secret to God, nothing of them is King Day One, the Almighty God) (Mu’min: 16),

    2 - (God is right and the estimated amount of the whole earth is his grip on the resurrection and the heavens are rolled in with his right hand
    Interpretation of the meaning they ascribe to) (Az-Zumar: 67).
    1-4: the agreement of the scientists and theories with the Koran and the Sunnah: -

    - Here the words of scientists and agency, “NASA,” the U.S. Space and quote on your site to “NASA”:
    What is the Shape of the Universe?
    The density of the Universe determines its geometry or shape. If the density of the Universe exceeds the so-called “critical density”, then the shape of space is curved like the surface of a huge sphere. If the density of the Universe is less than the “critical density”, then the shape of space is curved like the surface of a saddle. If the density of the Universe exactly equals the “critical density”,
    then the shape of the Universe is flat like a sheet of paper.

    What is the shape of the universe?

    Density of the universe are determined by the geometry shape, if the density of the universe more than so-called “critical density”; be the shape of space curve, such as: the surface of a large spherical body, and if the density of the universe is less than the critical density; be the shape of space curve, such as:
    Surface of the saddle, and if the density of the universe exactly equals the critical density; be the form of flat space, such as: sheet of paper.

    - And then confirm these scientists by providing: -
    The most widely accepted theory predicts that the density of the Universe is very close to the critical density, and that the shape of the Universe should be flat,
    like a sheet of paper.

    Comment by abd errahman — October 31, 2010 #

  70. gooooooooooooooood

    Comment by abd errahman — October 31, 2010 #

  71. fuck the eathe

    Comment by pares — November 4, 2010 #

  72. fuck spaces idont enther stand wtha you are saing asshole

    Comment by parel — November 4, 2010 #

  73. you dont no how to spell

    Comment by ammy — November 4, 2010 #

  74. ra aris es veraperi ver gavige normalurad mainc eweros:@:@:@:@:@:@:@

    Comment by mari — November 12, 2010 #

  75. Most of these posters are sorta freaky. And so is this website. And so is the Universe. And so is existence. Holla!

    Comment by Johnny — November 18, 2010 #

  76. we cant even protect a rainforest let alone bring a dead planet back to life, get real peole.
    mind you they did it in star trek & that was real.

    Comment by john — November 29, 2010 #

  77. […] ั ัะฐะนั‚ะพะฒ Starts with a Bang! ะธ IO9. $(window).load(function(){ twttr.anywhere(function (T) { T(”#twit-box”).tweetBox({ […]

    Pingback by ะŸะธั‚ะฐัŽั‰ะธะตัั ั€ะฐะดะธะฐั†ะธะตะน ะฟั€ั‹ะณะฐัŽั‰ะธะต ั€ะพะฑะพั‚ั‹, ะฒะพะทะผะพะถะฝะพ, ะฟะพะบะพั€ัั‚ ะœะฐั€ั » Robotor — December 1, 2010 #

  78. Shipping methane to Mars won’t work. Methane breaks down in Mars’s atmosphere. Boydings, et al are studying the possibility of producing large quantities of CFCs (the toughest greenhouse gases) and injecting them into Mars’s atmosphere (their research is being funded by a former defense contractor that was big during the Reagan administration).

    Nuking Mars won’t happen either. The unpublicized Mars terreforming agreement (Bern, 2008) stipulates that no action will be taken that can potentially create hazards to the terraforming effort.

    There’s also talk of operationalizing the Thermite Chain Reaction theory to reactivate the Martian core, as proposed by the late Anton Bravski, but tests so far have not resulted in sustained reactions that could withstand Martian winter conditions.

    Comment by Jonas — December 3, 2010 #

  79. Mars is awesome but i bet you dont know what color it is

    Comment by Lady gaga — February 24, 2011 #

  80. mars is your home planet and you dont even know what color it is

    Comment by Lady gaga — February 24, 2011 #

  81. Mars has a number of magnetic “umbrellas,” according to recent discovery from some NASA mission that I can’t recall. Large solar panels landed at the two poles could be used to melt, produce, and drill permanent magnets into the crust, unifying and strengthening the Martian magnetic field over time. With a strong enough field, Mars will accumulate more gases than are lost, eventually building up a workable atmosphere. It may even be possible to eject small clouds of the Venutian atmosphere with carefully timed nuclear bursts, allowing the solar wind to carry gasses to the Martian orbit.

    Just as important to life is a moon that can stir up tidal forces, bringing oxygen into the early forming seas on the surface. Gravity drives, huge solar sails, or even nuclear weapons could be used to force large asteroids from the asteroid belt to collide with Phobos and Deimos, producing a single, medium mass moon with a close, fast orbit. The gravitational pull of this moon would also deflect and heat the crust, assisting in the heating process. Much of the energy needed to make Mars a viable option for life is already present in our solar system.

    The main project can focus on the 2500 mile wide Valles Marineris canyon. It is a deep trench just south of the equator that already maintains the highest temperatures and pressure on the planet. Instead of building a nuclear power plant (complete with heavy shielding), uranium rods could be drilled deep hundreds of feet deep into the bottom of that Valles Marineris, gradually heating up that area, making it amenable to algae and bacteria. These microbes would, in time, do most of the heavy lifting. Algae actually produces air very quickly, as long as it has a large sea mass and warm weather to support it. Plant seeds and even insects (like honeybees) could be spread throughout this zone, eventually producing field of grasses, mushrooms, flowers, and life in one very small part of the planet. At that point, crops grown on Mars could support colonists living there.

    Large mylar mirrors could be left in close orbit to reflect sunlight 24.6/7, adding more light and warmth, keeping activity going in Valles Marineris around the clock. Most of the raw material needed for this large projects can already by found on the red planet. Very little physical mass needs to be transported from Earth.

    Comment by Max Abramson — April 2, 2011 #

  82. To be successful, we need to learn the art of networking and feel comfortable doing it. Regarding the workforce, anticipate continual technological advancements.

    Comment by Junie Knyzewski — April 25, 2011 #

  83. i like the eartn who cares anout other e[lanets

    Comment by marin Lefebvre — May 27, 2011 #

  84. ^^^^^^ I love this sooo mucho! Que interesante! Me gusta tacos mucho! Son muy delicioiuso! Tambien, me gusta frijoes! ( Soy blanco ) Que rico! Tengo el pelo castano y los ojos verdes. boobs! Soy muy baja! me gusta caminar a mi casas naked! Soy graciosa! Yo cocinar los sandwiches para la cena y ver la tele! look me up on facebook! Ben tran! be my friend… PLEASE! I have none!

    Comment by -Ben Tran — May 27, 2011 #

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a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim 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a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a bananaim a banana

    Comment by jose pable concerano bannana the 7678786688th — May 27, 2011 #

  86. osome thinking.start dreaming about living in the reddy planet.space lovers love it.thankyou 4 d info.mind blowing…………….dc.tamilnadu,india.

    Comment by divya — June 4, 2011 #

  87. this is a very beautiful picters

    Comment by amanda — June 16, 2011 #

  88. When then perfect nuclear fusion then all things will be possible.

    Most of the problems in terraforming Mars and other planets will be overcome with the application of massive amounts of energy. Whether that involves reheating the planet’s core of building a super conducting coils one thing is for sure … you are going to need lots of power.

    Comment by Doug — August 4, 2011 #

  89. Forget about the comet idea, Mainstream cosmology is WRONG about it being dirty snowball. Comets are highly charge ASTEROIDS, which gets discharged when it approaches the sun.

    Check out the plasma cosmological model that not only explain the flash of the deep impact probe, but also predicted it.

    Comment by Hannodb — August 4, 2011 #

  90. ะšะธะตะฒัะบะธะต ะฟัƒั‚ะฐะฝั‹ ะธะท ัั‚ะพะปะธั†ะธ ะฃะบั€ะฐะธะฝั‹ ะณะพั€ะพะดะฐ ะšะธะตะฒะฐ ะทะฝะฐัŽั‚ ัะผั‹ัะป ะฒ ัั€ะพั‚ะธั‡ะตัะบะพะผ ะผะฐััะฐะถะต! ะžะฝะธ ั‚ะพั‡ะฝะพ ะปัŽะฑัั‚ ะตะฑะฐั‚ัŒัั!

    Comment by ัะปะธั‚ะฝั‹ะต ะฟั€ะพัั‚ะธั‚ัƒั‚ะบะธ ะšะธะตะฒะฐ — August 22, 2011 #

  91. […] You can read more about the plans to pump up our deep-space transmission capabilities over at Discovery NewsTop image via […]

    Pingback by NASA is using lasers to broadcast from space in HD | Mars Gazette — August 24, 2011 #

  92. Adding a large moon would create a dynamo in the core of Mars: thus creating the magnetic field needed. There are a LOT of crazy and misguided ideas on this page, but if you want Mars to be more Earth-like, you need a moon that has some PULL.

    Comment by Bono — August 26, 2011 #

  93. I’m happy for your assistance and as well , wish you find out what a powerful job you’re undertaking training people by way of a web site.

    Comment by Caleb Schmeltzer — September 2, 2011 #

  94. Hiya, I’m really glad I have found this information. Today bloggers publish just about gossips and net and this is actually annoying. A good web site with exciting content, that is what I need. Thank you for keeping this web site, I will be visiting it. Do you do newsletters? Can not find it.

    Comment by sex shops — September 12, 2011 #

  95. don’t write so much and never write in arabic and make sure the photos you put on line are real because school children need real photos. lots of love me

    Comment by jorden hope — September 22, 2011 #

  96. Maybe we should consider something closer to home, say the moon.From what it looks like we have most of the stuff for it,its just a matter of getting it over there.And if we could terra-form the moon and then slam it against mars it would add all the gasses needed.just an idea.

    Comment by Poohba the Grand — November 10, 2011 #

  97. hey quick ??? if there ice and heat on there weres the in between were there would be water and if not if we were to melt the ice some how drastically would it start to produce a better living atmosphere

    Comment by derek — November 27, 2011 #

  98. Wow, were all gona live on a red rock, holy shit btw we r all goona die before we even get there

    Comment by ass face — December 7, 2011 #

  99. this is the equivelant of my ass

    Comment by bigfag — December 7, 2011 #

  100. you are all stupid chuck norris has already been to mars and killed everything even your mom

    Comment by your face — December 8, 2011 #

  101. My balls are the size of mars, chuck norris was here, he took a shit and that is how soil was invented, it makes a good fertilizer. EVERYONE WHO COMMENTS BELOW ME SUCKS

    Comment by Superdouche — December 8, 2011 #

  102. Now I know this may be a bit of a stretch but hear me out. Some of you may recognize this idea from a syfy fantasy movie, don’t quote me but I believe it was called the earth’s core. Basic plot of the movie, to save Earth from becoming like Mars, scientist had to create a machine that bored down to the Earth’s core. Once at the core they had to place Nuclear bombs at strategic places around the core area and then set the bombs off in a specific sequence to jump start the Earth’s core and get it back moving again. Obviously we realistically would create one ship to do this, but couldn’t we as a united world create smaller boring robotics that bored down to Mar’s core in strategic spots from it’s surface, each combined with a nuclear bomb coordinated with each other for a specific sequence. Wouldn’t the blasts themselves not only heat up the core but also add the necessary mass Mars needs to sustain a heavier gravity, and thickening up it’s atmosphere. I figured that it would take 4 along its equator line 1 for each of the pole areas and the first to ignited at a strategic coordinate to start the whole chain off. Why?? The Earth has over 6 billion people. Hello,, Yeah we still have room to grow but not much. And we like the idea of moving some of our atmosphere to Mars anyway, why not move some of Venus’ to Mars? Kill two birds with one stone you might say. If one terraformed planet is good two would be better.

    Comment by Dragonmars — December 18, 2011 #

  103. Moving planets and bringing gases and water upto mars…it costs billions of dollars just to go to the moon one time and thats why we havnt been back there in over 40 yrs..cost too much money,and for two mars is way farther than the moon and Takes about 9 months to get there and would probably cost quadrillion dollars to do all the stuff everyone is talking about,Its not as easy as hooking a trailer upto a spaceship and taking off for mars and then the risk of bacteria coming back from mars to earth or vice versa,We dont even know everything about how our planet works and people just want to head off into space and start messing with the fabrics of life..and noone will convince me there is no bacteria life on Mars,and us going there and introducing our bacteria life to theres might not be a good thing,especially when we do not know what kind of lifeform was living there…for all we know we could jumpstart a lifeform that will alter everything as we know it…like I said we dont know everything about how our world works and now we are gonna go farther into debt cause the President needs a fallout planet,Man I wish I never inhaled.

    Comment by Joshua — February 15, 2012 #

  104. Why terraform Mars in the first place? In order to terraform the planet (we are talking about a fully functional and migration ready planet) would require a couple or more millenia to accomplish. Sure we could have humans living there on a temporary basis within 200 years and even perhaps a permanent presence within a 100 years of that. But what would be the point?

    Of all the knowledge we would gain from the experience one fact would remain the same. Those 300 years would have been better spent on some other project that would lead us to an already habitable planet somewhere else in the galaxy.

    Comment by amindamok — March 9, 2012 #

  105. aaaaaaaaawesome|m soooo overywhelmed tjo i jst wanna go to this planet………..

    Comment by zamalek — March 25, 2012 #

  106. awesome…………

    Comment by eka — March 25, 2012 #

  107. after reading the idea for terraforming mars, ive thought of some well waky ideas. maybe somebody smarter than me can say if there any good.

    the first is that mars magnetic field is more or less gone (some parts are there just very close to the surface). occums razer suggestes that were all over thinging the problem. mars has an iron core no longer liquid nor turning but there. mars is also very close to the asteroid belt. the simpliest answer i can think of is to find a very large asteroid which has a high concentration of iron (not sure on the exact dimentions). then send it to mars not on a colition course. but to be traped in orbit (a new moon). now this is my idea after this we do nothing. the increased mass of the moon rotating round the planet at high speed would put tention on mars this would have several effect that i can see (depending on orbital path and distance from mars). firstly it would generate heat on the planet from friction. secondly the martian core is still magnetic just not enough to extend outwardly of the surface. the new moon having a high level of iron would have an effect on this giving the core friction as it moves around it. over time (dont know how long) the core should heat up when it does the friction turns to motion slowly restoring the magnetic field.

    once this is done mars’s core would melt the rock around it creating magma which in turn generates volcanioes and created tectonic plates (and there movement). a byproduct of this would be co2 though volcanic eruptions. this would give a asic atmospher and warmth.

    once this has happened any water on mars would melt.

    now for the tech we would need for this

    firstly a telescope capable of finding iron deposits in asteroids and ploting there tregectory.
    secondly a space craft (automated) to get to it and either nudge it towards mars or stear it (need ideas for this, also ensure it does not crash into mars)

    thats it once all this is done

    what is left to do would be to thicken the atmospher, add more water and send life.

    water and atmospher should be in the form of comets or metoers in the belt

    Comment by robert — April 7, 2012 #

  108. Extremely radioactive metals are extremely heavy, and will be at the core of mars, along with all the extremely heavy elements, perhaps some from an island of stable isotopes. It would be simple enough to set off a reaction at the core, a meltdown instead of an explosion. Would be nice to sample the core too, if it had cooled sufficiently to reach.

    There are also huge amounts of rare earth metals, that can be highly magnetized. Perhaps large comets could be magnetized, either by slinging through the suns magnetic field. Its not inconceivable that one could wire an electromagnet out of mars, with strategically placed metals.If enough comet metal landed on mars, or a smaller body, it could be engineered to withstand comet impacts, or to build smaller enclosures, lead would be present and you could shield radiation to desired levels, for plants, etc. In the extreme, the planet could be encased, and conceivably converted to a long term plan for humanity,with enough metals and radioactive material, it could survive for long periods, potentially enough to travel between stars.

    If the core materials of mars yield super-heavy elements, or potentially comets, there may be ways to yield tremendously energetic engines, or perhaps other magnetic technologies. It might be possible to use the push and pull forces in the spaces between the stars, once they are mapped, much like the early ocean currents.

    Much of the comets will be magnetizable, with substantial amounts of nickel and iron as well. Mining could be done with huge nuclear powered electromagnets. Nuclear technology could be safely used on the far side of the moon for example, microwave technology already exists that can beam energy large distances with very little loss of energy.

    With large scale robotic manufacturing equipment, its conceivable that it could be automated in manufacturing itself. With robotic asteroid mining, asteroids could be mined without humans having to get dirty in space. No human casualties from micro-meterorite punctures. 3d printers can already print sand into glass bowls with sunlight, Automating large solar panel manufacture on the moon,or perhaps 360 degrees of the moon listening array . It wouldn’t necessarily have to be covered to be useful, with no atmosphere, so solar cells could gather tremendous amounts of energy , but be more susceptible to wear.

    It could be that mars once had life, but it was extinguished by repeated comet impacts. It is so close to the asteroid belt, and may need to have bunkers to deal with the dangers of asteroid mining. Stray asteroids will be dislodged from their usual orbits, and it is likely they will hit earth if not monitored closely.

    We might even owe our survival on earth to mars, with it sweeping the area closest to the asteroid belt, it greatly increased earths chances of survival by soaking up impacts. Much matter in the universe has been expelled by supernovae , and the general direction of the supernova of the past could be considered monitoring sites for rogue planets, or pieces of them.

    They may be methods to infer gravity remotely, much like sonar, once (or if) people can find the elusive graviton, perhaps being able to generate anti-graviton particles,using them as a propellant somehow. Ideally using it a sensor for approaching masses, like earthquake monitoring.

    In the event that gravity manipulation becomes possible with magnetics, mercury is almost entirely metal, possibly having much of its mass burned off by the sun, perhaps solar flares in the past were much larger, and mercury and venus soaked up some of the energy. Perhaps the atmosphere on venus, used to be on mars, it is much thicker and hotter then earth. It would be possible to slingshot atmosphere from venus to mars, moving away from the sun for terraforming would make sense, as it will expand as it ages.

    Mercury could be heated, or will be heated when the sun gets close enough, and its mantle , and perhaps surface will liquefy enough to make it feasible to magnetize it and move its orbit, perhaps to mars, or to attract meteorites. you could potentially change its orbit through the asteroid belt to mine. Even when its done mining you could put it in mercury’s orbit to build a magnetic field using a moon.

    Mining the gas giant jupiter would likely be the most feasible for a mars atmosphere, or even feeding the sun , to prolong its life. Perhaps gas giants are mined to feed the stars of aging civilizations. Its like our solar system was designed to support life on earth, with a mining planet like mars , close to a source of metals. And when you move past it, theres atmosphere to move to the mining planet. Even with venus,its atmosphere could be moved to mercury, it it could be fully enclosed and shielded. Mercury could contain rare elements as well, much as specific gravity separates gold and magnetite out of sand, the different orbits of the solar system will have “sedimented out star dust” with the source of the suns ignition being an overabundance of hot radioactive materials. Melting down mars’s core might bring olympus mons back to life and wreck all the fine terraforming plans.

    Some methods would take tremendous resources and manpower, and a long term plan, executed over many centuries. As far as military involvement, any technologies they have recovered and kept hidden from crash sites might well be beyond our imaginings. As food availability increase, and populations stabilize , or expand, less will be spent on the military on earth, and more in space. Perhaps there already are some weaponized space vehicles, by russia, the US, or china. It would be very naive to think that all extra-terrestials would have the same moral structures as us. They might consider us immoral perhaps, but some would seem evil, but would merely be what they are. Perhaps some are predatory, or rogue members of certain species, like mafias, pirates, or biker gangs. Not developing technology,(and any technology can be weaponized) would be unwise, and would have to be carefully used, perhaps diplomatically. I would argue the old buddhist saying, better to prepare for something that never comes, then to be unprepared when it does. (speaking of preparation for reincarnation)

    Comment by dkella — April 25, 2012 #

  109. I was thinking that if it was possible todo, was to smash mercury into mars thus giving it a magnetic core and ,with a bit of luck a moon to stabalise its tilt.

    Comment by tony mason — May 14, 2012 #

  110. or, what if you could drag venus into the goldielocks orbit and drag mars to orbit it as a moon

    Comment by tony mason — May 14, 2012 #

  111. Basic Infrastructure is required:
    1. Use Tunnel Boring Machines to construct tunnels that is essentially a ‘Rail Gun’s’ - firing 3.5metre diameter metal cased bullets of 10 to 20 tonnes, around and round a circle and then up through a tall mountain and ’shoot’s’ the bullets of water, fuel, supplies into orbit. Launch of materials becomes very inexpensive. (the Rockies and Alps and Himalayas are ideal portals for a eastward facing launches).
    2. Alpha Mass Spectrometers - like on the one on the ISS, put one at each pole on Mars with a nuclear power supple to provide the entire planet with an man made artificial magnosphere (van allen belt). This would protect all plant and animal life taken to Mars from Solar and Cosmic Radiation.
    3. Human transport once the supplies are landed, travel in rotating/spinning inter-planetary craft - for artificial gravity and also put a AMS in the nose section to protect those making the journey from solar and cosmic radiation.
    4. Chemical rockets to launch humans, land and lift off from Mars. But with the Man Made magnetic field now protecting life on Mars. Send Men and Women who are over age 40, those who choose to Retire to Mars - as in Once way travel and these people establish and construct the basis for long term continued habitation of Mars.
    Going for a few days/weeks/months and returning - why bother - there are plenty who would choose to spend their last decades on the one way journey.

    Comment by mick — May 25, 2012 #

  112. I should have paid more attention. Why does magnetic field size make me think of TV aerials? Any the bettery-free dongles that light up near phones?

    Anyone? :o)

    Comment by Simon — May 31, 2012 #

  113. Do you REALLY need a magnetosphere? Just put a disclaimer in the realty ads: near-instantaneous cancer likely.
    Kidding aside, though, we could feasibly fire hydrogen bombs into the planet’s core or something. Once you’ve got that, just plant a few thousand trees and keep them watered (automated canals from the icecaps?). Over the decades, the oxygen should trap in more heat, melting the icecaps, starting a water cycle, and allowing the groves to spread as wild forests.
    As for the problem of mass and gravity, that’s easily solved. Just crash a broken-up asteroid into the planet (yes, that would likely destroy whatever presence humans had made on the planet, but hey, that could create some fun apocalyptic drama).
    Despite apparently being much less knowledgeable than I thought before reading this thread, I plan to write a trilogy of books on the subject.
    The story of how a desolate world became a paradise,
    A boy became a man,
    A memory became a love,
    And a secret became a battle, a war, and the end of the world.

    Comment by James — June 13, 2012 #

  114. bitch u dont get to go anywhere, ever. take care of the fucking forest before its all chopped down!

    Comment by zues — July 9, 2012 #

  115. Bring our greenhouse gasses to mars? maybe when man evolves another billion years

    Comment by PHIL — July 9, 2012 #

  116. Moving Asteriods/moons will be the solution. Not only would more gravity help hold air, but the collision of such bodies with mars would certainly deliver energy. Think smashing Europa into Mars (lots of water).

    Comment by JoeShmo — July 20, 2012 #

  117. HEBE JEBE

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  119. all a pipe dream!! spend the money to find the man in the moon!Look under them big damn rocks!I know hes there.WE can grab all the free cheese we want!

    Comment by tom — August 7, 2012 #

  120. Fun to think about, but regardless of the mineral content of Mars substrates (lots of salt), it would take VAST amounts of fertilizer to catalyze the soil. There’s no accumulated organic material on Mars to induce a nitrogen cycle. Even with ample water you would have a hard time growing anything in a desert. Besides, there are no Earth plants that can withstand those temperatures, and if you could bring extreme concentrations of greenhouse gasses there, it would push any oxygen the weak gravity could hold up into space, as carbon gasses are far more dense than oxygen.

    Comment by Nick — August 9, 2012 #

  121. Fun to think about, but regardless of the mineral content of Mars substrates (lots of salt), it would take VAST amounts of fertilizer to catalyze the soil. There’s no accumulated organic material on Mars to induce a nitrogen cycle. Even with ample water you would have a hard time growing anything in a desert. Besides, there are no Earth plants that can withstand those temperatures, and if you could bring extreme concentrations of greenhouse gasses there, it would push any oxygen the weak gravity could hold up into space, as carbon gasses are far more dense than oxygen. I think we would have a hard time redirecting a comet or large moon like Europa.

    Comment by Nick — August 9, 2012 #

  122. I have taken the liberty of using one of the fotos on this page for my own article. I defend that terraforming is not the solution, and I look into an alternative to make Mars partially habitable.

    Comment by Benjamin — August 19, 2012 #

  123. Here is my theory..first we would have to send scientists to Mars and in time build little domes scattered across the planet with 2-4 nuclear power plants supplying the domes with energy, in one of the larger domes we could start a deep drilling project in order to drill a tunnel into the core..once we finish drilling and have reached the core of Mars we could either (1.)possibly direct solar power into the core through very large solar panels creating thermal energy through infared radiation or (2.) put a nuclear bomb inside the core or put a central (Very large) nuclear reactor in the core or we could wrap Mars in magnetic cables as stated above..to put more water on the planet and warm it up we would probably need a combination of taking a percentage of Earth’s greenhouse gases(CO2, Methane, and Water Vapor)and put them on the planet via trapping the gases in a very large (Space-Proof) bubble and launching it into Mars surface and basically polluting the planet with greenhouse gases by generators whose soul purpose is to just pollute the atmosphere..but the pollution theory could turn things around in a fairly short amount of time(The reason i say this is because look what has happened to Earth..we can’t stop the greenhouse effect and it seems to get hotter year by year) I believe the bubble theory is the best and cheapest way to both remove Earth’s greenhouse gases and help with terraforming Mars..I also believe that sending comets and asteroids rich with H20 from the nearby asteroid belt and sending them to the poles would be a good idea..the only problem i see with terraforming Mars is that Mars only has 40% of the gravity that Earth does..Venus is a better candidate as far as gravity goes..perhaps we could terraform Venus by first slowly nudging it farther away from the sun via large asteroids and comets(Pretty much moving several large asteroids to fly right by Venus nudging it slowly past Earth just a little bit so that it sits just between Earth and Mars) then cooling the planet down by sending comets to Venus and extracting the large amounts of greenhouse gases into space..we are still hundreds of years away from having the technology to terraform any planet but only a decade or 2 away from visiting Mars but i believe that to terraform Mars first we must send scientists willing to set up domes on Mars(Or robots, nanobots, ect.)..like i said we are hundreds of years away from terraforming any other planet but our best bet in the current age we are in would be to set up colonies on the Moon first..but again we would face a problem..solar radiation(Since the Moon has no atmosphere) if we want to start constructing colonies on the Moon we must first start under the surface so that we would not be pelted with radiation from the sun.

    Comment by CRage? — August 25, 2012 #

  124. very nice information,…

    Comment by bilal — August 28, 2012 #

  125. very nice information and very helpfull,…

    Comment by bilal — August 28, 2012 #

  126. Use this money to save all leaving speaces on this planet-we messed it up this planet so much and now we are pretending to run to Mars -Use this money how to stop human being to think about war, study more how to be happy and about improving the way of thinking toward brotherhood -Learn to leave spiritually and poeticly and remove yourself from from strong attachment to material world.
    We are not ready to explore other planet with this human mentality as we have.Through deep undestanding of our sould and spirit we can perhaps be there much faster than through technnology.Right now is the most important to pray and to avoid a new big war which can distroy all our happines and hopes-distroy all of us.

    Comment by Jozef — August 30, 2012 #

  127. Although we don’t have the technology yet I’m sure one day mankind will have good reason to invest in the regeneration of Mars. It only makes sense, its a perfect candidate for a base close to home, much like our moon but instead of having a base orbit Earth we would finally be able to orbit the sun, and from an entirely different perspective.

    Comment by Bazil — August 31, 2012 #

  128. zoti ebekoft krejt dynjan boten te cilen ne sod jetojm te gjith nejrzit dhe bota shtazore bimore dhe bota biologjike me lumej liqej detra dhe oqeane zoti asht nja dhe per veq tina tjeter nuk ka nejemi bijt etij kudo ne bot pa dallim race feje apo relegjioni na krejt qka jetojm ne tok ekemi nji zot dhe aj asht nja perveq tina nuk ka njerzit ne ter boten kan shum besime asht edrejt eqdo kujna te besoj kute don mirpo na te gjith ne ket bot ekemi nji jet dhe nji zot pa dallim race feje kudo anekand botes kemi dillin hanenn por edhe shum e shum objekte dhe sene te pa zbulune pershemell para pak nji muaji ne mars mrrin nji roboticili bjen shum foto nga sateliti ne tok asht shum interesant per mue sekam rezerva se bota kashum sene te mira me mija por ende te pa zbulune porbota emodernizune hulumton qdo moment te boj zbulime epokale sikur pershemell amerikanet asht qudi qfar teknologjije kan te poersosur smundesh ta merr me mend krejt ata astronaut dhe kta ingjinjer zbulimtar te hatashem zoti i bekoft ne mars besohet se ne nji ardhme jote larget dot mrrin njerzit vet milijona kilomatra larg tokes mua shum me interesojn kto zbulime epokale dhe quditna une jam nga kosova qe 4 vitekemi nji pavarsij por jo edefinune eperfundune krejt me shpressekysmet kamu jetsue 100 perqin por te folsh per kosoven dhe miqt tan amerikan nji shtet me dy milon banor miq shum te afer dhe te dashur me amerikan asht dishka emadhe per mua jetoj ne zvicerr nji shtetimrekulluar por amerika sod per sod ashtmbreti ibotes arriten ta qojn robotin ne mars dhenji koh te afert dota vizitoj njerio live ket planet marsin aq shumte bukur kto mrekulli krejt ikem nga zoti jon ne jem bijt dhe bjat etina dhe krejt natyra me kta njerz itakon atij ju lumt zbulimtarve amerikan dhe te gjithve qi ban shum per zbulimet eshum planeteve ju uroj shum fat dhe a shum te keni zbulime une per vetn time jam shum iknaqun meket teknik kolosale te paparapar zoti ibekoft shqiptaret dhe popullin amerikan me miqt tan evropian

    Comment by berisha mustafa — September 15, 2012 #

  129. zoti ebekoft krejt dynjan boten te cilen ne sod jetojm te gjith nejrzit dhe bota shtazore bimore dhe bota biologjike me lumej liqej detra dhe oqeane zoti asht nja dhe per veq tina tjeter nuk ka nejemi bijt etij kudo ne bot pa dallim race feje apo relegjioni na krejt qka jetojm ne tok ekemi nji zot dhe aj asht nja perveq tina nuk ka njerzit ne ter boten kan shum besime asht edrejt eqdo kujna te besoj kute don mirpo na te gjith ne ket bot ekemi nji jet dhe nji zot pa dallim race feje kudo anekand botes kemi dillin hanenn por edhe shum e shum objekte dhe sene te pa zbulune pershemell para pak nji muaji ne mars mrrin nji roboticili bjen shum foto nga sateliti ne tok asht shum interesant per mue sekam rezerva se bota kashum sene te mira me mija por ende te pa zbulune porbota emodernizune hulumton qdo moment te boj zbulime epokale sikur pershemell amerikanet asht qudi qfar teknologjije kan te poersosur smundesh ta merr me mend krejt ata astronaut dhe kta ingjinjer zbulimtar te hatashem zoti i bekoft ne mars besohet se ne nji ardhme jote larget dot mrrin njerzit vet milijona kilomatra larg tokes mua shum me interesojn kto zbulime epokale dhe quditna une jam nga kosova qe 4 vitekemi nji pavarsij por jo edefinune eperfundune krejt me shpressekysmet kamu jetsue 100 perqin por te folsh per kosoven dhe miqt tan amerikan nji shtet me dy milon banor miq shum te afer dhe te dashur me amerikan asht dishka emadhe per mua jetoj ne zvicerr nji shtetimrekulluar por amerika sod per sod asht mbreti ibotes arriten ta qojn robotin ne mars dhenji koh te afert dota vizitoj njerio live ket planet marsin aq shumte bukur kto mrekulli krejt ikem nga zoti jon ne jem bijt dhe bjat etina dhe krejt natyra me kta njerz itakon atij ju lumt zbulimtarve amerikan dhe te gjithve qi ban shum per zbulimet eshum planeteve ju uroj shum fat dhe a shum te keni zbulime une per vetn time jam shum iknaqun meket teknik kolosale te paparapar zoti ibekoft shqiptaret dhe popullin amerikan me miqt tan evropian

    Comment by berisha mustafa — September 15, 2012 #

  130. Mars habitation is not a far fetched idea. The most foward thinking derivation is that each one of us needs a place in Mars including a business. Veronica Mars

    Comment by Veronica Navarrete — September 25, 2012 #

  131. I’m not a scientist, but I think its a great Idea and I’m willing to volunteer when it comes around,if we shot a missel at the edge of the ice cap with all the basic planktons, lichins and micili it could hide deep in the crust to protect itsself and create heat… possibly enough to heat the core and get things movin I think mabey that just think if we could send off a quarter of the population, the earth would have a chance to heal its self. Its like growin up and movin out of moms house, which I recomend superduche and bananna man do…Peace

    Comment by Mic — September 27, 2012 #

  132. Hello there! This post couldn’t be written any better! Reading this post reminds me of my old room mate! He always kept talking about this. I will forward this write-up to him. Pretty sure he will have a good read. Many thanks for sharing!

    Comment by solar panels and solar water heating in cape town solar panels and solar water heating in cape town — November 6, 2012 #

  133. Could’nt we bomb bard mars with asteroids and comets to increase its mass and water to a similar level of earth. May it also be possible to construct a moon in orbit of mars using asteroids to help control the weather and stabilize mars’s rotation. Don’t look at it as logistical problem. the asteroids could come from the asteroid belt which i believe is a unformed planet.

    Comment by notenoughtime — November 11, 2012 #

  134. seems easy enough on the magnetic move asteroids in sync to create a moon and tidal forces on the core…

    Comment by fever4bieber — December 5, 2012 #

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  136. You don’t need to get to the core to magnetize it… You can do it from outside, just like when you magnetize an iron bar.

    You will need some stuff spinning around the planet… We got a lot of it in Earth: metal garbage. We could polarize metal powder and permanently create rings than will generate a magnetic field from the out

    Comment by Isaac — January 28, 2013 #

  137. Okay Mars needs to be heated up and needs to be larger to hold the atmosphere. Why not fly some very large asteroids into it. Increasing the mass and gravity and heating up the planet. To finish it off and cool it down asteroids of ice.

    Brian Cooper

    Comment by Brian Cooper — February 27, 2013 #

  138. Easiest way to Make Mars live able for Humans.

    Send some Humans to the Mars Most of them sinners, rapists, homosexuals gays and murderers.

    and ask them to do lot of sins on the Mars.

    So God will send a Prophet to them for guidance, and they have to reject him and the oneness of Allah as well

    So Allah will punish them with a severe torment Like floods (as in the Noah AS ’s time) and fire, as fire needs Oxygen so God will also send oxygen to the Mars.

    So water Oxygen and fire will make the Planet Mars live able.

    Then send more people on Mars and make another world for Human being. :)
    By Mozan

    Comment by mozan rock — March 9, 2013 #

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  143. why not just use the x37b to drop some rods from gods from the x37b on to mars over and over

    Comment by jason — May 22, 2013 #

  144. Well, Your website is actually very helpful. But I have to tell you that the ice caps on mars cannot be melted, only sublimed. Melting it will only turn straight into C02 which, i can say happily is great because all we need to do is add the green house effect to mars to make it warmer for living conditions. Water on mars cannot be found because of its thin tempurature , so by adding the greenhouse effect and heating Mars up, we can create H20 (water). Also we could add a biosphere to Mars which would sustain the oxygen . I know this beacause i have to do a project on mars!

    Comment by Shayla, 12 years old — June 15, 2013 #

  145. Well, Your website is actually very helpful. But I have to tell you that the ice caps on mars cannot be melted, only sublimed. Melting it will only turn it straight into C02 which, i can say happily is great !
    because all we need to do is add the green house effect to mars to make it warmer for living conditions. Water on mars cannot be found because of its thin temperature , so by adding the greenhouse effect and heating Mars up, we can create H20 (water). Also we could add a biosphere to Mars which would sustain the oxygen . I know this because i have to do a project on mars!

    Comment by Shayla Jean, 12 years old — June 15, 2013 #

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  147. to: Prodigy โ€” January 25, 2010

    Best will be using of CFC 1 ton act like 7500tons of carbon dioxide. 1 ton of steam act like 10 000 tons of CO2.

    Maybe we should transport Ceres as moon of Mars and current moons can be crashed on Mars.
    (Or we can transport Ceres into belt of meteors and start forming of next planet)

    to: refresh โ€” March 15, 2010
    I think that “restart” of Olympos mons is almost impossible, there can be few miles of solid rocks and no atomic device can destroy it (Maybe TSAR (with uranium shield can reach 100Mt), but i don’t think that we could send 25ton “present” to Mars.
    But last eruption was only around 2 million(!) years ago, so Mars must have molten core, maybe only right spin is necessary

    Comment by KvL — September 8, 2013 #

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  149. This is great, except we wouldn’t need to bring any of our atmosphere with us. That’s a horrible idea. Especially not *all* of what is required. There are various extremophiles that could survive there. Start there and, once they establish growth, increase to micro-critters and fungus that could survive on the extremophiles and their byproducts, and we start gaining momentum. Once enough of that is present you move onto small plants to condition the soils and finally trees to produce the O2 we need. This is a fairly straight forward and cheap process that we could start today… if we had a good solution to fixing the magnetosphere …

    Also, the temperature isn’t something we would need to fix directly. The combination of magnetosphere and atmosphere would get us close enough. Large bodies of water, collected from asteroids and comets, is what we would need to help keep things stable.

    Overall the only thing hindering us is the magnetosphere… It’s not nearly as impossible as it sounds here otherwise - only technically challenging is all.

    Comment by Gr1pp717 — November 14, 2013 #

  150. I think the bigger problem in terraforming Mars is the magnetic field, I think everyone will agree with me.
    Once we get that solved, the other steps can be easily done. But unfortunately we still do not have the technology to “resurrect” a planets’s core or even less to make an artificial magnetic field. Unless not for awhile.

    Comment by Salvador — November 19, 2013 #

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