The Cosmic Microwave Background? Not always…

The Universe isn’t a static place. Although the laws of nature (physics, chemistry, biology, etc.) don’t appear to change over time, everything in the Universe appears to evolve, and changes over time. One of the simplest ways that this happens is through Hubble expansion. General relativity tells us how the Universe expands, and more specifically, … Read more

Dark Matter: Is it right in front of us?

Last year, I had just finished my Ph.D. studies, and had moved to Madison, WI to teach introductory physics at the University of Wisconsin. I was working on this paper, and when I submitted it, I got a phone call from New Scientist magazine’s space division. Fast-forward two weeks, and I find this article online, … Read more

Centripetal vs. Centrifugal force, & the Solar System

One of the worst teaching tools physicists use (and they almost all do it) is to tell students, There’s no such thing as centrifugal force. What can you do when the top physics education website says, “It is important to note that the centrifugal force does not actually exist. We feel it, because we are … Read more